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106 Cards in this Set

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Florence Nightingale 1859
Environment/Sanitation
Goal of nursing is to put patient in best condition for nature to act upon him, primarily by altering the environment
Environment/Sanitation
Hildegard Peplau 1952
Interpersonal Process
Nursing is viewed as an interpersonal process involving interaction between two or more individuals, which has as its common goal assisting the individual who is sick or in need of health care
Interpersonal Process
Faye Abdellah 1960
Nursing Problems
Nursing is a service to individuals, families, and society based on art and science that molds the attitudes, intellectual competencies and technical skills of the individual nurse into the desire and ability to help people cope with their health care needs, and is focused around 21 nursing problems.
Nursing Problems
Ernestine Wiedenbach 1964
Nursing Problems Model
Nursing is helping, nurturing, and caring service rendered with compassion, skill, and understanding, in which sensitivity is key to assisting the nurse in identifying problems.
Nursing Problems model
Virginia Henderson 1966
Development/Needs
Nursing's role to assist the individual (sick or well) to carry out those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the strength, will or knowlege. And to do this is in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible.
Development/Needs
Myra Levine 1969
Conservation and Adaptation
Nursing means the nurse interposes her/his skills and knowledge into the course of events that affect the patient. When influencing adaptation favorably, the nurse is acting in a therapeutic sense. When the nursing intervention cannot alter the course of adaptation, the nurse is acting in a supportive sense.
Conservation & Adaptation
Ida Orlando Pelletier 1972
Interpersonal Process
Nursing's unique and independent role concerns itself with an individual's need for help in an immediate situation for the purpose of avoiding, relieving, diminishing, or curing that individual's sense of helplessness.
Interpersonal Process
Jean Watson 1979-1988
Caring
The essence and central unifying focus for nursing practice is caring, a transpersonal value. Nurse behaviors are defined as 10 carative factors. Focuses on the spiritual subjective aspects of both nurse and patient and the "caring moment" relating to the time when nurse and patient first come together.
Caring
Dorothy Orem 1980
Self Care
Nursing is concerned with the individual's need for self-care action, which is the practice of activities that individuals initiate and perform on their own behalf in maintaining health and well being.
Self Care
Dorothy E. Johnson 1980
Systems Approach
Nursing is an external regulatory force that acts to preserve the organization and integration of the patient's behavior at an optimal level, under those conditions in which the behavior constitutes a threat to physical or social health, or in which illness is found.
Systems Approach
Imogene M. King 1981
Open Systems approach
The focus of nursing is the care of human beings resulting in the health of individuals and health care for groups, who are viewed as open systems in constant interaction with their environments.
Open Systems approach
Rosemarie Rizzo Parse 1981
Man-Living-Health
Nursing is rooted in the human sciences and focuses on man as a living unity and as qualitatively participating in health experiences. Health is viewed as a process.
Man-Living-Health
Betty Neuman 1982
Systems approach
Nursing responds to individuals, groups and communities, who are in constant interaction with environmental stressors that create disequilibrium. A critical element is the client's ability to react to stress and factors that assist with reconstitution or adaptation.
Systems approach
Sister Callista Roy 1984
Adaptation
The goal of nursing is the promotion of adaptive responses (those things that positively influence health) that are affected by the person's ability to respond to stimuli. Nursing involves manipulating stimuli to promote adaptive responses.
Adaptation
Martha E. Rogers 1984
Science of unitary man
Nursing is an art and science that is humanistic and humanitarian, directed toward the unitary human, and concerned with the nature and direction of human development.
Science of unitary man
Katharine Y. Kolcaba 1992
Holistic theory of Comfort
The immediate desirable outcome of nursing care is enhanced comfort. This comfort positively correlates with desirable health seeking behaviors.
Holistic theory of Comfort
Her theory was to put the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon him.
Florence Nightingale
She defined nursing..to "assist the individual to do what he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge."
Virginia Henderson
She outlined four stages of therapeutic relationship.
Hildegard Peplau
List the four stages of the therapeutic relationship
1) orientation
2) working
3) exploitation of the relationship
4) resolution
Her theory : Interpersonal Relations Model
Hildegard Peplau
Orem's self care deficit is based on the ideals of which theorist
Virginia Henderson
Nightingale's theory:
Her priorities were ________. Strategies to change ________. Evaluation of ____________.
1. the environment,
2. environment,
3. whether environment was assisting the patient.
Virginia Henderson's theory:
1. Priorities
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. Priortize pt's needs
2. Select a strategy assisting the patient
3. Evaluate the patient's function.
Her theory is "the purpose of nursing is to foster personality development in the direction of maturity.
Hildegard Peplau
Two "System Theorists"
Dorothy Johnson
Betty Neuman
She believed that tension arises from the failure to meet needs, and that discomfort causes a person to seek a remedy.
Hildegard Peplau
Peplau's theory:
1. Priority
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. Priortize the relationship with pt
2. Strategize to increase maturity
3. Evaluate whether discomfort and tension were decreased.
Behavioral System Model
Dorothy Johnson
Johnson's belief is that nursing client is ________.
one or more behavioral systems, interacting with the enviroment.
Theory: "Nurses foster correct behavior function in the patient to prevent illness, and during and following illness.
Dorothy Johnson
Orem's self care deficit is based on the ideals of which theorist
Virginia Henderson
Nightingale's theory:
Her priorities were ________. Strategies to change ________. Evaluation of ____________.
1. the environment,
2. environment,
3. whether environment was assisting the patient.
Virginia Henderson's theory:
1. Priorities
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. Priortize pt's needs
2. Select a strategy assisting the patient
3. Evaluate the patient's function.
Her theory is "the purpose of nursing is to foster personality development in the direction of maturity.
Hildegard Peplau
Two "System Theorists"
Dorothy Johnson
Betty Neuman
Theory : "Behavioral System Model"
Dorothy Johnson
Johnson believes that nursing client is _________________________.
one or more behavioral systems, interacting with the environment.
Nurses foster correct behavioral function in the patient to prevent illness, and during and following illness.
Johnson
Johnson's theory:
1. Priority
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. Prioritize pt's behavior
2. Strategize to correct his behavior.
3. Evaluate his behavior.
Theory: "Adaptation Model"
Sister Callista Roy
Believes the person is in constant interaction with his environment. The environment changes, and the person must adapt.
Sister Callista Roy
Roy's four modes of adaptation:
1) Physiological needs
2) Self-concept
3) Role Function
4) Interdependence relations
Roy's Adaptation Model:
Goal of patient and nurse...
To get stimuli into an acceptable zone.
Roy's theory:
1. Priority
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. Need to adapt
2. Assisting adaptation in any of the four modes of adaptation
3. Patient's degree of stimuli into acceptable zones.
Theory: "Health Care System" model
Betty Neuman
Neuman relies on Gestault theory that states:
the whole is more than the sum of its individual parts.
In lay terms...Gestault's theory
People are more than just a collection of physical organs.
"Stress is an intruder" : ? Model
Neuman
Neuman's three levels of prevention and their meaning.
1) Primary prevention: before stressor
2) Secondary prevention: after stressor
3) Tertiary prevention: with restoration of balance
Model that:
Describes patient's lines of defense, the stressors, and the need to promote equilibrium.
Neuman
Model: That is compared to the medical model and is much used to suggest nursing actions for prevention in various education and practice settings.
Neuman
Neuman's theory:
1. Priority
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. Prevention of pt's stress
2. Would be selected to reduce stress and prevent new problems
3. Would be done to see if stress was reduced and new problems prevented,
Theory: "Self Care Deficit"
Dorothea Orem
Theorizes that a person does self care daily. When pt's resources are depleted and he cannot do self-care, deficit results that can be met by nursing systems.
Dorothea Orem
Model: "Nursing care can be compensatory (wholly or partial) or supportive (educative).
Orem
Promotes the idea that nurses select and use interventions to assist pts w/ self care in order to contribute to the maintenance and promotion of the patient's structure, function and development.
Dorothea Orem
Orem's theory:
1. Priority
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. Patient's self care
2. increase self care
3. evaluate to what degree patient is able to care for himself.
Theory: "Science of Unitary Human Beings"
Martha Rogers
Similar to the "unified field theory" first developed in physics in which...?
every action affects every other action.
For example.. stones dropped in a pond produce ripples in every direction.
In her model, humans are greater than the sum of their parts (Gestalt) and move through time and space as an integral part of an expanding universe (physics).
Martha Rogers
Rogers theory:
1. Priority
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. energy, wholeness
2. those that use nurse's intellect and knowledge
3. if pt's patterns were more in harmony.
Theorist: Promotes the idea that nurses use intellect and knowledge to interact with patients in order to promote healthy patterns of living in harmony with their surroundings.
Martha Rogers
Theory describes a constant exchange of energy between humans and their environment that are essential for life.
Martha Rogers
Theory describes principles of homeodynamics: helicy, resonancy, complementarity, and an indivisible energy field.
Martha Rogers
Theory related to the New Age alternative therapies; and focus on energy. The field of Therapeutic touch is also, related.
Martha Rogers "Science of Unitary Human Beings"
Theory: "Human Science and Human Care"
Jean Watson
Theorist, stresses on the word "care".
Watson
Theory based on belief that people strive for a sense of inner harmony, and that the goals of nursing are unity and harmony.
Jean Watson
Watson's theory:
1. Priority
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. harmony
2. increase unity and harmony
3. eval. degree to which harmony was increased.
Theory: "Principles of Nursing"
Myra Levine
List Levine's four Principles of Nursing
1) Conservation of energy
2) Structural integrity
3) Personal integrity
4) Social integrity
Theorist, believes nurses engage either in therapeutic intervention (help pts get well) or supportive intervention (help pts not get worse).
Myra Levine
Levine's theory:
1. Priority
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. integrity of patient
2. help pt either to get well or not worse
3. whether integrity had increased as a result of the intervention
Theory: "Transcultural Care Model"
Madeleine Leninger
Theorist, belief the essence of nursing is caring.
Leninger
Theory states, the patterns of caring that develop can be seen and can be systematically observed, and from those patterns of caring we can develop a "science of caring".
Madeleine Leininger
Theory...Culture is defined as the learned, shared and transmitted values, beliefs, norms and life way practices that guide the thinking, decisions, and actions of a particular group in patterned ways.
Leininger
Believes there are three commonalities of care across all cultures, but predicts that there are fewer universals than diversities because people and their situations are so different. Thus, it is vital that nurses give care that is based on knowledge of and respect for, the differing cultures of their patients
Leininger
Leininger theory:
1. Priority
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. culture of the patient
2. take into account the culture
3. encompass the degree to which the culture was respected
Theory: "Pender Health Promotion" model
Nola Pender
Emphasizes lifestyle changes that she believes would make patients healthy.
Nola Pender
List categories of determinants of patient's health promotion behavior according to Pender:
1) Cognitive/perceptual factors
2) Modifying factors
first two determine the 3rd
3) Participation in health promoting behaviors
Examples of Cognitive/perceptual factors
Importance of health to person
Perceived control of health
Definition of health
Perceived health status
Perceived barriers to health promoting behaviors
Examples of Modifying factors
Demographics
Biologic characteristics
Interpersonal influences
Situational factors
Behavioral factors
Pender's theory:
1. Priority
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. Patient's perceptions and situation
2. Selected to modify those perceptions and environment
3. Eval. strategies by pt's increase (or not) in health promoting behaviors
Theory: "Goal Attainment"
Imogene King
Theorist, believes through transactions or interactions between patients and nurses, patients can attain their goals of recovery and health.
Imogene King
Believes that we are all part of some larger system and interacting within it.
King
King's theory:
1. Priority
2. Strategy
3. Evaluation
1. Interaction or system btwn pt and nurse
2. Improve those interactions
3. Whether pt had attained his goal of better health
Assess patient's environment... which Theorist
Florence Nightingale
Assess patient's self care deficits... which Theorist
Dorothea Orem
Assess patient's self care needs and functional abilities... which Theorist
Virginia Henderson
Assess patient's interpersonal relationship and maturity; evaluate discomfort and tension were decreased... which Theorist
Hildegard Peplau
Assess patient's behavior... which Theorist
Dorothy Johnson
Assess patient's ability to adapt to changes in the environment.. which Theorist
Sister Callista Roy
Assess patient's ability to reduce or prevent stress...which Theorist
Betty Neuman
Assess patient's energy and wholeness.. evaluate if patient's patterns are in harmony with their surroundings...which Theorist
Martha Rogers
Assess patient's care of self and sense of inner harmony...goals of unity and harmony...which Theorist
Jean Watson
Assess and evaluate patient's integrity to get well or not get worse/ if nurse's intervention increased pt's integrity
Myra Levine
Assess patient's culture and evaluate if patient received care congruent with their cultural beliefs...which Theorist
Madeline Leininger
Assess patient's perceptions and situations; goal to modify those perceptions and the environment; evaluate goals by pt's increase (or not) in health promoting behaviors...which theorist
Nola Pender
Assess if patient can attain their goals of health and recovery; goals to improvement of health through interactions with nurse... which Theorist
Imogene King
Stability models...with emphasis on caring. Which theorists?
Orem & Watson
Stability models...with emphasis on growth and development. Which theorists?
Peplau, Rogers, Neuman
Growth models of change. Which theorists?
King, Johnson, Neuman