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87 Cards in this Set

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What is the major function of the mucous membrane within the oral cavity?
Lining and protection, as well as free movement of the lips and cheeks
Where is lining mucosa found?
buccal mucosa
labial mucosa
alveolar mucosa
floor of the mouth
ventral surface of tongue
soft palate
What is the gen. appearance of Lining Mucosa
Soft surface texture
Stretches and compresses
Acts as a cushion
What is the Microscopic appearance of Lining mucosa?
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epi.
few rete pregs
thin lamina propria
Where is masticatory mucosa found?
Free gingiva
attached gingiva
Interdental gingiva
hard palate
Dorsal tongue surface
What is the general appearance of Masticatory mucosa?
Rubbery surface texture and resiliency
Makes a firm base
What is the Microscopic appearance of Masticatory Mucosa?
Keratinized ept
many rete pegs
thick lamina propria
Where is specialized mucosa found?
Dorsal surface of the tongue
What is the general appearance of specialized mucosa?
Associated with lingual papilla
What is the microscopic appearance of Specialized mucosa?
Mostly keratinized
(filiform and circumvallate)
- the non are fungiform and foliate
The crevicular (sulcular) epithelium and gingival col are _____ gingival tissues.
nonkeratinized
What does the presence of rete pegs indicate?
Indicative of the presence of inflammation
What does the lining of a healthy gingival sulcus consist of?
nonkeratinized epithelium with no rete pegs
Which group of fibers of the alveolodental ligament resist tilting, intrusive, extrusive, and rotational forces?
Apical group
What are the principal fibers of the PDL composed of?
What do they do?
Bundles of Type 1 collagen
Connects the cementum to the alveolar bone
What is the main principal fiber group of the PDL called?
Alveolodental ligament (Has 5 fiber groups)
What are the five fiber groups of the Alveolodental ligament?
Alveolar Crest Group
Apical Group
Oblique Group
Horizontal Group
Interradicular Group
Originates in the alveolar crest of the alveolar bone and fans out to insert into the cervical cementum at various angles. Resists tilting, intrusive, extrusive, and rotational forces
Alveolar Crest Group
Radiates from the apical region of the cementum to insert into the surrounding alveolar bone proper. Resists extrusive forces that try to pull the tooth outward, and rotational forces
Apical Group
The most numerous of the fiber groups and covers the apical two-thirds of the root. Originates in alveolar bone proper and extends apically to insert into the apical part of the cementum in an oblique manner. Resists intrusive forces, that try to push the tooth inward, as well as rotational forces
Oblique Group
Originates in the Alveolar bone proper apical to its alveolar crest and inserts into the cementum horizontally. Resists tilting forces (prevents forces to push the tip in all four directions) and to resist rotational forces
horizontal Group
Found only in multirooted teeth. inserted on the cementum of one root to the cementum of the other root (or roots) superficial to the interradicular septum and thus has no bony attachments. Works with the alveolar crest and apical groups to resist intrusive, extrusive, tilting, and rotational forces
Interradicular Group
What is the last principle fiber group which inserts mesially or interdentally into the cervical cementum of neighboring teeth over the alveolar crest of the alveolar bone proper. Fibers travel from cementum to cementum without any bone attachment. Resists rotational forces and thus holds the teeth in interproximal contacts
Transseptal fibers
The terminal portions of the collagen fibers which insert into the cementum are called what?
Sharpey's Fibers
Collagen fibers that support only marginal tissues to maintain their relationship to the tooth
Gingival Fibers
The name given to separate but adjacent fiber groups that are found within the lamina propria of the marginal gingiva
Gingival Fiber group (Gingival ligament)
What do some histologists consider the gingival ligament to be a part of?
Principal Fibers of the PDL
What are the different fibers of the gingival ligament?
Circular Lig.
Dentogingival Lig.
Alveologingival Lig.
Dentoperiosteal Lig.
This fiber subgroup of the gingival fiber group is located in the lamina propria of the marginal gingiva. Encircles the tooth and helps maintain gingival integrity.
Circular Lig.
This fiber subgroup of the gingival fiber group inserts in the cementum on the root, apical to the epithelial attachment, and extends into the lamina propria of the marginal gingiva. Has a single mineralized attachment to the cementum. it works with the circular lig. to maintain gingival integrity.
Dentogingival lig.
This fiber subgroup of the gingival fiber group extends from the alveolar crest of the alveolar bone proper and radiates coronally into the overlying lamina propria of the marginal gingiva. may help to attach the gingiva to the alveolar bone because of their one mineralized attachment to bone.
Alveologingival Lig.
This fiber subgroup of the gingival fiber group courses from the cementum, near the cementoenamel junction, across the alveolar crest. These fibers possibly anchor the tooth to the bone and protect the deeper PDL
Dentoperiosteal Lig.
Which structure is the inner layer of cells of the junctional epithelium and attaches the gingiva to the tooth?
Epithelial attachment
What provides epithelial attachment of the gingiva?
Junctional epithelium via basal lamina and hemidesmosomes
(Forms actual tooth attachment)
Epithelial lining extending from the gingival margin to the junctional epithelium.
Sulcular Epithelium
The epithelial colar that provides the epithelial attachment to the tooth surface continuous with but structurally distinct from the sulcular epithelium.
Junctional Epithelium
The Lamina dura corresponds to which component of the alveolar process?
Alveolar bone proper
Part of the Max. and mand. that forms and supports the sockets of the teeth.
Alveolar Process
What are the two main parts of the alveolar process?
Alveolar Bone Proper
Supporting Alveolar bone
Thin layer of compact bone that is specialized continuation of the cortical plate and forms the tooth socket.
Alveolar Bone Proper
What has minute openings which provide passages for vascular and nerve components and is comprised of compact bone.
Lamina Dura
What is lamina Dura sometimes called?
Why?
Bundle Bone
Due to bundles of perforating collagen fibers
That bone which surrounds the alveolar bone proper and gives support to the socket. Consists of a cortical plate and spongy bone sections
Supporting Alveolar bone
Composed of lingual and facial plates of compact bone. Dense and provides strength and protection. Skeletal muscle attachment.
Cortical plate
Which cortical plate is more dense?
Mand. or Max.?
mand. and has few perforations for nerve and blood vessel passage
What is the highest point of the alveolar ridge and joins the facial and lingual cortical plates?
Alveolar Crest
Fills in the area between cortical plates and alveolar bone proper. It is nor present in the anterior region of the mouth where the cortical plate is fused to alveolar bone proper. Also true of radicular buccal bone of the max. posteriors.
Spongy Bone
How wide is the PDL of an adult?
0.2 mm wide
What does the thickness of the PDL depend on?
Age
Stage of eruption
Function of the tooth
How thick is the PDL in old age/
Why?
About 0.1 mm
Probably due to deposition of cementum and bone
What happens to the PDL when a tooth loses its function?
Becomes very thin and loses regular arrangement of its fibers
Also occurs in areas of tension (not compression)
The occlusal table is less than _____ of the overall faciolingual width of the tooth.
60%
The occlusal table of the tooth is generally at right angles to the _____ _____ _____ _____.
long axis of the tooth
Crowns of mand. molars are inclined about _____ toward the lingual. For this reason root apices of mand. molars are positioned more _____ and the crowns are positioned more _____.
15-20%
Facially
Lingually
What is the PDL derived from?
Dental sac
What are the tissues immediately adjacent to the PDL?
Cementum and Alveolar Bone
Remnants of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath found in the PDL of a functional tooth are called what?
What sometimes happens to these?
Rests of Malassez
These sometimes become calcified into (Cementicles)
What is the portion of the Principal fiber that is embedded into the cementum is called?
Sharpey's Fibers
Where is the diameter of the sharpey's fibers greatest?
Bone side rather than the cementum side.
What does the PDL contain?
Cells
Blood Vessels
Lymphatics
Extracellular fibers (collagen)
Ground substance (proteins and polysaccharides)
What are the functions of the PDL?
Physical
Formative
Remodeling
Nutritive
Sensory
Attachment of the tooth to the bone via principal fibers and absorption of occlusal forces.
Physical functions of the PDL
Formation of connective tissue components by activities of connective tissue cells (cementoblasts, fibroblasts, osteoblasts)
Formative functions of the PDL
Activities of connective tissue cells that are able to form as well as resorb cementum (cementoblasts or cementoclasts), PDL (fibroblasts, or fibroclasts), and alveolar bone (osteoblasts or osteoclasts)
Remodeling function of the PDL
Through blood vessels that maintain the vitality of its various cells
Nutritive function of the PDL
Carried by the trigeminal nerve, proprioceptive and tactile sensitivity is imparted through PDL (sensation of contact between teeth). PDL is richly supplied with nerve endings that are primarily receptors for pain and pressure.
Sensory function of the PDL
The col is a non-keratinized, concave-shaped structure which is most specifically part of which gingival division.
Interdental gingiva
Refers to the functional unit of tissues that surrounds and supports the teeth.
Periodontium
What are the two sections of the periodontium?
Gingival unit
Attachment apparatus
What composes the gingival unit?
Free and attached gingiva and alveolar mucosa
What comprises the attachment apparatus?
Cementum, PDL, and alveolar bone proper
The interdental gingiva is that part of the free gingiva that occupies the interdental spaces _____ to the alveolar crest.
Coronal
Triangular gingival mass which is situated between the teeth in the area beneath the tooth contact points and consists of two papillae (one buccal and one lingual) that are connected by the concave-shaped interdental col.
Interdental gingiva
Gingiva which is firm, dense, stippled, and bound to the underlying periosteum, tooth, and bone. Extends from the mucogingival junction to the free gingival groove.
Attached Gingiva
Part of the gingiva which is unattached to underlying tissues and helps to form the sides of the gingival crevice (sulcus). Extends from the free gingival groove to the gingival margin.
Free Gingiva
In the absence of _____ _____, the configurations of the crest of the interdental alveolar septa are determined by the relative positions of the adjacent CEJ's. Width is determined by the tooth form present.
Periodontal Disease
The first area to show clinical signs of gingivitis is what?
Free Gingiva
The collar of tissue that is not attached to the tooth or alveolar bone.
Free gingiva
How wide is the free gingiva?
1 to 3 mm wide
1 mm narrow band of gingiva that forms the immediate collar around the base of the tooth. This area is the first to show symptoms of gingivitis
Gingival margin
Area between the unattached gingiva and the tooth. Popcorn hulls get trapped in this area
Gingival sulcus
Joins the gingiva to the tooth surface
Epithelial Attachment (junctional epithelium)
Part of the gingiva which is attached to the underlying periosteum of the alveolar bone, and to the cementum by connective tissue fibers and the epithelial attachment. Present between the free gingiva and the more movable alveolar mucosa.
Attached Gingiva
The _____ _____ separates the attached gingiva from the alveolar mucosa.
Mucogingival junction
The _____ _____ _____ separates the free gingiva from the attached gingiva.
Free gingival groove
Gingival fibers are found within the ...
Free Gingiva
What are the collagen fibers of the gingiva?
Circumferential (circular)
Dentogingival
Dentoperiosteal
Alveolo-gingival
(sometimes transseptal fibers)