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51 Cards in this Set

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Duple
Type of meter/time signature. basic metrical pattern of two beats to a measure.

2/4
triple
type of meter/signature. Three beats to a measure.

3/4
quadruple
type of meter/signature.

4/4
Binary form
Two-part form with each section normally repeated. AKA two-part form.

Has: "A" (verse) then "B" (chorus).
Ternary form
"A" (verse) then "B" (chorus) then "A" verse.

Also known as "three part form".
Monophony
The simplest type of texture. A single melodic line, a single voice, with no accompaniment
Polyphony
A type of texture. 2 or more independent melodic lines overlapping. Based on counterpoint.
1. imitative polyphony: singing the same melody with a different entrance point.
2. counter-melody
Homophony
A type of texture. 1 melody with accompaniment (melody on top). A single voice takes over the melodic interest, while accompanying parts take a subordinate role.
Diatonic
a type of tonality. Notes inside the key area.
Chromatic
Music has notes outside the key area.

Chromatic scale: 11 notes
Major scale
Scale consisting of several different tones that comprise a specific pattern of whole and half steps. It differs from a minor scale primarily in that its third degree is raised a half step.
Minor scale
scale consisting of seven different tones that comprise a different pattern of whole and half steps. It differs from the major scale primarily in that its third degree is lowered a half step.
melodic contour: Disjunct melody
melodies that move in a disconnected or disjointed intervals. a melody with lots of skips/leaps (all over the place)
conjunct melody
Melodies that move primarily by small intervals in a joined connected manner. mostly stepwise motion (up then down scale)
Voice types: soprano
High
Voice types: Alto
Medium-high
Voice types: tenor
medium-low
Voice types: Bass
low
Instrumental classification:
aerophone
instruments that use air to create sounds (clarinets, flute, voice, organ)
Instrumental classification:
Chordophones
Bowed and plucked instruments whose sound is produced by the vibration of one or more strings. (violin, guitar, bass, piano, banjo)
Instrumental classification:
Memambrophones
use a skin or a membrane (drum, timpani)
Instrumental classification:
Idiophones
uses the material of the instrument tomake sound (cymbals, bells, xylophones)
What are the 4 instrumental classifications?
aerophones, chordophones, memambrophones, idiophones
what are the 4 instrumental groups?
woodwinds, brass, strings, percussion
Instrumental ensembles:
woodwinds
flute, double reed, single reed
Instrumental ensembles:
bass
trumpet, trombone, tuba, french horn
Instrumental ensembles:
string quartet
2 violins, 1 viola, 1 cello. Also a multimovement composition for this ensemble.
Music time periods:
middle ages
400-1450 (medieval)
- codification begins; beginnings of polyphony.
- Gregorian chant
Music time periods:
Renaissance
1450-1600
- Age of polyphony
Music time periods:
Baroque
1600-1750
- the first opera produced
- ends when Bach dies
Medieval music:
Gregorian chant
From the medieval time period.
codified by pope gregory, lived 509-604.
Influenced by jewish music. also had greece, syria, and mesopotamia influence.
Medieval music:
Polyphony
began in the 8th/9th century. Paralell organum was the first form of polyphony.
Medieval music:
Notre Dame School
Composers: Leonin, Perotin.
Innovations: motets used as rhythmic modes, cantus firmus, duplum secundum

genres: motets
Secular music:
Ars Nova
Increasing separation between church and state. Means "new art".

Composer: machaut
Style: secular music
Subject matter:
Secular music:
Minstrels
troubadors (south france), trouvere (north france), jongleur (lower france).
Bas vs. haut
bas = soft = indoor music
haut = laud = outdoor music
Genres:
Chant
Consists of a single-line melody. In other words it monophonic in texture, lacking harmony and counterpoint
in latin, long drawn out note, melismatic.
Genres:
Mass
One of the services of the Roman Catholic church. The most solemn ritual of the church. It's recited at the end of the service. The collection of prayers that make up the mass can be divided into two categories: the proper and the ordinary. in latin
MASS
ordinary:
1. kyrie 2. gloria 3. credo 4. sanctus 5. agnus dei

proper:
1. hymns/readings 2. motets
Genres:
Motet
any short sacred text in latin that is not from the ordinary, a setting other than ordinary.
polyphonic vocal genre, secular in the middle ages, but sacred or devotional thereafter.
Hildegard von Bingen
1098-2279.
Raised in a very religious family. part of an abess, a renowned mystic (able to foretell future). lived during the medieval period, late 9th century. Founded a convent in Germany. Regarded as a saint by the church. Her music style resembles Gregorian chant. Composed Alleluia. Wrote down prophecies in "Scivias". She composed poetry wiht music in "Symphony of the Harmony of Celestial Revelations".
Leonin
first composer of polyphonic music. Wrote the great book of organum.
part of the notre dame school. lived during the end of the 11th century. He created:
- motets using rhythmic modes = type of melody used
- original chant, augmented rhythmically.
- cantus firmus = an early chant, elongated
- duplum secundum/secundus: newly composed lines
Perotin
The successor of leonin. Expanded the dimensions of organum by increasing the number of voice parts, first to three then to four. part of notre dame school. lived during beginning of 12th century. He created:
multitextual motets (semi-sacred)
- used cantus firmus
Machaut
born in northern france. Was a famous poet, worked in religious services. composed many monophonic songs that used fixed forms.
Alleluia
by Hildegard. starts with male voice, then several, latin, motet, monophonic, melismatic, sacred
Gaude Maria Virgo
by Notre Dame School, organum. latin, polyphonic, melismatic, cantus firmus, duplum secundus (the middle part), triplum (the higher part). rhythmic modes
puis qu'en oubli
by Machaut. has fixed form, melismatic, french language (secular), polyphonic music
Consonance
concordant or harmonious combination of tones that provides a sense of relaxation and stability in music.
Dissonance
Combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable, in need of resolution.
Sonata-allegro form
the opening movement of the multi-movement cycle, consisting of themes that are stated in the first section (exposition), developed in the second section (development), and restated in the third section (recapitulation).

Also known as sonata form or first-movement form
Orchestra
performing group of diverse instruments in various cultures; in western art music, an ensemble of multiple strings with various woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments.
organum
earliest polyphonic music. Developed from the custom of adding a second voice that ran above or below the gregorian melody at the interval of a fifth or fourth.