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36 Cards in this Set

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Characteristic of romantic music. fluctuation in tempo, aka "borrowed time". The performer hesitates or hurries forward at some point in the song, lends to flexibility.
Franz Schubert
Born in Vienna. Part of Vienna Boys Choir. worte more than 600 hundred lieder and song cycles. erlking is one of his most famous songs. Had syphilis, died at age 31.

Music marks the confluence of classical and romantic eras. Created chamber music and piano works.
1815. by Schubert, based on Goethe's narrative ballad. Through-composed Lied, German.
Medium: solo voice and piano.
Tempo: fast
characters: narrator, father, son, erlking.

piano accompaniment creates feeling of urgency. Piano's triplet rhythm continues throughout song. Shift from minor to major in Erlking's voice, dissonance to show boy's terror.
Robert Schumann
Known for his symphonies, piano music, chamber music and Lieder. Established literary magazine for music criticism (new journal for music). Many of his lieder were written for his fiance, clara wieck. born in germany, grew up to live in leipzig. couldn't play piano due to finger problems. had mental illness, put in an asylum.

A common theme in his songs is love, "A poet's love" was one of his greatest song cycles, "and if the flower's knew" is the the 8th song in the cycle.
song structure that is composed form beginning to end, without repetitions of large sections. opposite is strophic
song structure in which the same music is repeated with every stanza (strophe) of the poem. Opposite of through-composed. usually hymns, carols, and most folklore.
Art song
aka Lied. A German text solo vocal song with piano accompaniment. art songs became a major trend in the romantic period. Schubert was the most prominent composer of them.
Changes in the Romantic period
the industrial revolution spurred many technological advances in instruments, more affordable. more conservatories throughout Europe and Americas. Orchestras grew in size due to more instruments, so composers demanded freedom of expression. composers exploited nationalistic folklore and exotic subjects. Rise in virtuosic soloist, in addition to professional/amateur music making. women musicians increased in status. music was very expressive and emotional.
Song cycle
groups of lieder that are unified by a narrative thread or descriptive theme.
part songs
unaccompanied secular songs in three or four parts. part of Romantic Choral music. most are short melodious works.
Forms of choral music
the Mass, the Requiem Mass, and the Oratorio. Played in concert halls.
Characteristics of choral music
Grew in popularity during the Romantic era. An artistic outlet for middle class. Brahm's "A German Requiem" was one of the most popular works.
"A German Requiem"
by Brahms. 1868.
Genre: Protestant Requiem
Medium: 4-part chorus, soloists and orchestra.
movements: 7
Structure: rondo

Has changes in mode (major-minor) and texture (homorhythmic/polyphonic). uses word painting. Emotional expressions of death.

Opening melody has clarinets and flute, inversion of first phrase in chorus. Coda at the end, similar to opening, end in E-flat minor.
Johanne Brahms
1833-1897. Born in Hamburg. Played violin. Arranged to meet Schumann at a young age, mentored by him. he was attracted to Schumann's wife, Clara. Settled in Vienna. Wrote "A german requiem" based on his mother's death.

Music was traditionalist, draws upon traditional elements. Wrote orchestral, chamber, solo music and piano music. He was intimidated by Beethoven whhen writing symphonies.
a polish folk dance in triple meter.
composition in ABA form, usually in triple meter. Replaced minuet and trio in nineteenth century.
idee fixe
"Fixed idea". A recurring musical idea that links different movements of a work. Used by Hector Berlioz in "symphony fantastique", represents his beloved.
Clara Schumann
1819-1896. virtuoso pianist composer. intepreter of the music of brahms, chopin and robert schumann. known for songs, piano music and chamber music. she faced criticism because she was a mother of children and a musician. died of a stroke.

made small works, such as song and piano pieces. made two large scale works and several virtuoso pieces. Wrote "scherzo, opus 10"
Frederic Chopin
all his works were centered around piano. Half polish, half french originated modern piano style, used rubato. Lived and worked in Paris. created etudes, meditative nocturnes, preludes, and dances. Created mazurkas and 4 ballades. educated at the Conservatory of Warsaw. Befriended novelist George Sand. Chopin died of Tuberculosis at age 39.
Piano music characteristics
Used at home and a popular solo instrument for virtuosos. Technological developments (factory production) in the nineteenth century led to creation of modern concert grand piano. Allowed for access of piano to the masses.

The rise of the virtuosic pianist was characteristic of the genre.
Four-hand piano music
a chamber music form arranged for two performers at one piano or occasionally two. part of piano music genre.
Short lyric piano piece
instrumental equivalent of the song. had the ability to project melodious and dramatic moods within a compact form. New terms were created for these works: prelude, intermezzo, impromptu. Masters of this were schubert, chopin, liszt, mendelssohn, brahms, robert and clara schumann.
Symphony characteristics
the romantic orchestra increased in size, new instruments added. Symphonic structure was longer Symphony was used often alongside programmatic forms. First movement of Romantic symphony was usually in sonata-allegro form, third movement was often a spirited scherzo.
Antonin Dvorak
1841-1904. Born in Bohemia, taught at national conservatory for a big salary, Henry Burleigh introduced him to spirituals. used native folk tunes. Wrote Symphony no. 9 subtitled "from the New World", inspired "the song of hiawatha"
Felix Mendelssohn
1809-1847. He was a pianist, conductor, organizer f music festivals, and an educator. Discriminated against for being jewish. composed mostly symphonies and chamber music. founded conservatory of leipzig. Conductor of Gewandaus Orchestra. Died of a stroke at age 38.

preserves many classical elements in his compositions, including his Violin Concerto in E minor. Uses tender sentiments and classical moderation.
The romantic concerto
preserves classical three-movement structure, but uses standard forms more freely. this was a medium for virtuosic performance by a soloist, often written for a specific soloist.
Absolute music
a.k.a. pure music. no prescribed story or text to hold the music together. the form is the most important organizing element. has no specific pictorial or literary program.
programmatic music
instrumental music with a literary or pictorial association provided by the composer (whereas absolute music has no pictorial meaning). has 3 programmatic genres: symphonic poem, programmatic symphony, incidental music.
symphonic poem
a.k.a. tone poem. a piece of program music for orchestra, in one movement, which in the course of contrasting sections develops a poetic idea, suggests a scene or creates a mood. gave composers flexibility.
programmatic symphony
a multimovement orchestral work. berlioz's symphonie fantastique is the most famous example.
incidental music
consists of an overture and a series of pieces to be performed between the acts of a play and during important scenes. most successful pieces were arranged into suites. part of film music and background music.
Hector Berlioz
1803-1869. Grew up in France. Awarded the prixe de Rome.

music is based on literary works. used extended technique, sounded ahead of his time.
-used col legno: playing string instrument with wood side.
-scordata: gave music an eerie sound.

Wrote symphonie fantastique
-has five movements
-fourth movement is march to the gullitine. Sees
-falls into a dream while on opium. Sees love interest Harriet Smithson before beheaded, which is the idee fixe.
Symphonie Fantastique
written in 1830. has five movements.
genre: program symphony
program: a lovesick artist is haunted by a vision of his beloved, which becomes the idee fixe. fourth movement played by large orchestra. idee fixe at the end played by clarinet. has ABA form. at last theme A, original form is inverted.
Bedrich Smetana
1824-1884. born in bohemia, a nationalist. wrote operas for the national theatre. best known for "bartered bride" and "my country". wrote 8 operas, orchestral music, choral music and songs. Most famous work was about the Moldau, the bohemian river.
Nationalistic music
stimulated by political unrest in europe. used lots of folklore, national figures, beauty of country as topics in music. prominent national schools of music were in russia, scandinavia, spain, england and bohemia. Chopin made mazurkas.
The Moldau
by Smetana.
Genre: symphonic poem, from cycle "My Country".
Tempo: fast, not agitated.
program: scenes along the river moldau.

Each scene is marked by a different instrumentation (flutes represent bubbling stream). wide-range river theme recur to unify the work. shifts between minor and major mode.

Has horns, trumpets, violins, harp.