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45 Cards in this Set

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Council of Trent
part of Protestant Reformation. Anti-lutheran reformation effort by Roman Catholic Church. Put restrictions on all aspects of society. They decided to retain Latin, and they incorporated more lay formation. The music also got very polyphonic, the church did not want the music to be so polyphonic.
Choral music characteristics
- polyphonic, used points of imitation
- # of voices?
- a capella
- cantus firmus
- idiomatic (written for the voice)
Genre: motet
any short sacred text in latin that is not from the ordinary, or a setting other than the ordinary. A polyphonic composition based on sacred text and sung without accompaniment
Genre: mass
Used a full-scale musical form during the Renaissance. Josquin des Prez made lots of masses. Has six sections of the mass: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus, Agnus Dei.
Josquin des Prez
1450-1521. A Flemish, classical music composer from Italy. Made lots of secular music, mostly masses and motets. Composed more than 100 motets. Often used 4 or more voices in compositions. Considered one of the greatest composers during Renaissance. "Ave Maria" is one of his most famous pieces, a prime example of how he

Used imitative polyphony, specifically "points of imitation".
1525-1594. Classical composer from North France, almost exclusively a sacred composer. Major figure in Renaissance. Worked as an organist and choirmaster at various churches. Pope Julius III was his patron. His music style represents the pure a cappella style of vocal polyphony. Wrote over 100 masses, as well as madrigals and motets. One of his most popular masses was the "Mass for Pope Marcellus".
Word painting/text painting
illustrating a poetic line with the music. ex. raising your voice to describe raising up to heaven.

Used a lot in secular music, moreso than in sacred music.
Italian Madrigal
genre: secular polyphonic.
An aristocratic form of poetry and music that flourished at Italian courts. The text was usally a short, expressive poem. Love, desire, humor, satire and politics were popular topics.
How it's different from english madrigal: chromatic, dissonant.
Related to the Medici family, a famous family in France.
English Madrigal
4-6 voices, a capella, polyphonic, word painting, diatonic, "fa-la-la" refrains, light-hearted subject matter, upbeat. English composers preferred simpler texts, reflects the Elizabethan age.
a secular polyphonic piece in French.
Musica Transalpina
1588. Books with italian madrigal verses translated into english. Music was retained though. Created by John Farmer, an English Madrigal composer.
John Farmer
an English Madrigal composer. Made musica transalpina.
Florentine Camerata
A group of humanists resurrecting Greek culture during the Baroque period. Wanted to make music more accessible, more vocal.

Part of the origin of the monodic style. Believed that music must heighten the emotional power of the text.
Monodic Style
Created by the Florentine Camerata.
Speech like, simple accompaniment. sub-categories:
- monody: A solo song with instrumental accompaniment. rhythm is more orderly, like a regular song.
- Stilo representativo: most speech like, develops into recitative.
Precursor to opera in Italy. A show performed between breaks of performances with lots of skits. Over time, it got much longer, and more musical.
The first opera, in 1600. At a wedding for the Medici family, marriage between Maria de Medici and King Henry IV. Written by Peri and Caccini. Based on the Orpheus myth.
(1567-1643). A master of the Italian Madrigal of the Renaissance period and early operas of the Baroque period. Bridged the Renaissance and Baroque period. Published 8 books of madrigals In 1607, he wrote his own opera called "L'Orfeo, Favola in Musica". His operas were very emotionally charged. In 1672, he wrote, Coronation of Poppea. The love duet established in this piece became a staple of of opera for the next several centuries.

Wrote 8 books:
- first 4 in Ren. style: acapella, polyphonic, 4-6 voices.
- last 4 in Baroque style: fewer voices, accompanied (often by guitar), reflected speech.
1682-1687. Opera composer for Louis XIV. Part of Mid-Baroque Opera in France.
He was the first conductor, accidently killed himself by stabbing himself with his staph.

Innovations: standardized the # of instruments in the orchestra. Standardized bow direction on string instruments. Used "mixed meter", so that rhythm changes reflect speech pattern.
French overture (?)
Henry Purcell
part of Mid-Baroque opera in England. A leading English composer and organist.
- Used "masque-precedent" (?).
- wrote song called "Dido and Aeneas" based on Dido/Aeneas myth.
Opera characteristics
Secular, long length (lasts for hours), staged, choir, solo vocalists, orchestra, multi-movement
Grew up in Venice. He was a music master at music schools in Venice. Violinist, did solo concertos. Made the Four Seasons. Invented idea of contrast between soloist and the orchestra. Wrote more than 500 concertos, about half were for solo violin concertos. Composed chamber music and vocal music, too.
(1653-1713) Italian composer of trio sonatas. Style represented Baroque period. Most famous for 12 concert grossi. Played violin.
music in which 2 ensembles contested with each other
A collection of dance movements, essentially. A series of movements in the same key, but contrasting in rhythm and sound. Derived from dances, used by Bach in Baroque period.
A piece played opposite the cantata. Used a lot during classical era alongside the fugue.
Polyphonic form in the Baroque era in which one or more themes are developed by imitative counterpoint of several voices. Has three qualities: a theme, continuation of voice, and a passage built on motive.
Trio sonata
Written for 2 solo instruments and basso continuo. Typically played by at least 4 instruments. Bach used a lot of trio sonatas
Da capo aria
Has ternary form (3 sections). Prevalent during Baroque period, sung by soloist and accompanied by instruments. Used as part of Handel's Messiah.
A form of short-hand in which figures are written below notes of the bass section to indicate which chords to play.
An introduction intended for operas.
Style of opera and oratio in which singers naturally converse or describe action.
Ground bass
Musical line in bass that's repeated throughout composition.
"The Four Seasons"
by Vivaldi, written in 1723. Most popular concerto. A violin concerto. Each concerto has three movements and is named after a season. Texture is varied and resembles the season. Four sonnets to be read with concerti.
"Dido and Aeneas"
An opera by Henry Purcell. First performed in 1689. Has three acts, lasts an hour. Based on the Aeneid. Uses lament and continuo. Has descending ground bass aria, composed for a girls' school. Recitative sung by Dido (mezzo-soprano), followed by descending ground bass aria.
"Cantata 80"
by Bach. An 8-movement cantata, including a choral fugue, recitatives, and aria. Based on a famous Lutheran hymn, ein feste burg. A tribute to Martin Luther. Written for the feat of Reformation.
Johann Sebastian Bach
A German Baroque composer and organist, lived 1685-1750. Also wrote lots of choral preludes. At age 23 he worked as a church organist and chamber musician for the Duke of Weimer. During this time he became famous for his religious works. Bach was A prominent composer of cantatas. Also worked under the prince of Cothen and a cantor at St. Thomas' church. Also wrote orchestral suites, concertos and keyboard music for organ and harpsichord. Better known in his lifetime as a virtuoso organist than as a composer. One of his most famous works was Well-tempered Clavier and Cantata 80.
a Da Capo Aria. virtuosic, includes ornamentation,

third movement is "Hallelujah":
-has contrasting textures: polyphony, homophony, monophony
-has a fugue
text or script of an opera prepared by a librettist. A librettist writes the texts of an opera work.
Stile Rappresentativo
A.K.A. representational style. Consists of a melody that moved freely over a foundation of simple chords. Resulted from the Camerata.
Lutheran cantata
multimovement works with solo arias, recitatives and choruses, all with orchestral accompaniment. Intended for lutheran church services
a large scale dramatic genre with a religious or Biblical text performed by solo voices, chorus and orchestra. It is not staged or costumed. Handel became the most prominent composer of english-texted oratorios. One of his most famous oratorios is "Messiah".
George Frideric Handel
known for his Italian operas and english-texted oratorios. Born in Germany, attended University of Halle. Learned about Italian operatic style when he moved to Hamburg. Appointed as one of the directors of the Royal Academy of Music, and as an Elector of Hanover.

Suffered from blindness caused by cataracts.

Music: diatonic melodies, very expressive. He made the oratorio chorus the center of the drama.
Solo concerto
The concerto for solo instrument and an accompanying instrumental group. Small group of solo players contrasted with full orchestra. Established by Vivaldi. Vivaldi experimented with sonority and virtuoso playing.
Concerto grosso
based on the opposition between a small group of instruments, the concertino, and a larger group called the tutti. Bach exemplified the use of C.G. in his Brandenburg Concertos
Barbara Strozzi
1619-1677. A prominent composer of cantatas, madrigals and solo motets in monodic style. Wrote seven secular collections. Involved with the intellectual elite, debates. Wrote Begli Occhi.