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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
recent weight gain can increase
physical stress on the musculoskeletal system
dull, deep, and throbbing describe ?
bone pain
aching pain is associated with?
joint or muscle pain
what type of pain is associated with fractures?
sharp or knifelike
joint stiffness in the elderly is often misdiagnosed as ?
diabetes mellitus, sickle cell anemia, or SLE put the client at risk for?
osteoporosis and osteomyelitis
reduced intake of vitamin D and calcium put a client at risk for
women who start menarche late or menopause early are at risk for ?
osteoporosis d/t decreased estrogen levels
diuretic can lead to
muscle weakness d/t electrolyte imbalances.
steroids can deplete?
bone mass and lead to osteoporosis
adverse reactions to HMG CoA reductase inhibitors can include
myopathy =which can cause muscle aches or weakness
smoking, alcoholic drinks,and caffeine can increase a clients risk for ?
protein promotes?
muscle tone and bone growth
vitamin C promotes?
healing of tissues and bones
calcium deficiency inreases a clients risk for ?
a diet high in purine can cause
gouty arthritis
uncontrollable risk for osteoporosis?
gender 80% female
age 70 or older
small boned size
ethnicity= Caucasian or Asian
family history
Modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis?
little or no physical activity
low calcium intake
low estrogen levels =female
excessive caffeine or alcohol intake
medications for arthritis, endocrine disorder, seizures, gastrointestinal diseases
when is peak bone mass archived?
35 to 40 years old in both sexes
rating of 5 =normal
active motion against resistance
rating of 4= slight weakness
active motion against some resistance
a 3 rating = average weakness
active motion against gravity
a 2 rating= Poor ROM
passive ROM gravity removed and assisted by examiner
a 1 rating= severe weakness
slight flicker of contraction
a o rating= paralysis
no muscular contraction
measures ROM
a abnormal nudge test
client falls backward easily seen in clients with Parkinson's and cervical spondylosis
flattening of the lumbar curvature may be seen in clients with ?
herniated lumbar disc or ankylosing spondylitis
lumbar lordosis
an exaggerated lumbar curve =lumbar lordosis seen in clients who are pregnant or obese.
acute rheumatoid arthritis

tender, painful, swollen, stiff joints .
chronic rheumatoid arthritis=systemic

chronic swelling and thickening of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints, limited ROM, and finger deviation toward the ulnar side
non tender, rounded, enlarged, swollen, fluid filled cyst. common on the dorsum of the wrist.
hard, painless nodules over the distal interphalangeal joints (Heberden's nodes) and over the proximal interphalangeal joints (bouchard's nodes)
Brouchard's joints
osteoarthritis= nodes over the proximal interphalangeal joints
thenar atrophy
seen in carpal tunnel syndrome.
painful extension of a finger= seen in infection of the flexor tendon sheathes
swan neck deformities
seen with chronic rheumatoid arthritis
acute gouty arthritis
the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe is painful, tender, reddened, hot, and swollen.

abnormal finding
seen at pressure points
hallux valgus
the great toe is deviated laterally and may overlap the second toe. an enlarges painful inflamed bursa (bunion) may form on the medial side.
painful thickening of the skin that occur over bony prominence and at pressure points
Hammer toe

hyperextension at the metatarsophalangeal joint with flexion at the proximal interphalangeal joint. common in the second toe
plantar wart

painful warts (verruca vulgaris) often occur under a callus appearing as tiny dark spots
McMurray's test
client supine
ask to flex one knee and hip
place thumb and index finger on either side of knee
use hand to hold the heel of the foot up
rotate the lower leg and foot laterally
repeat with other leg
What should the nurse note when doing the McMurray's test?
pain or clicking which could indicate a torn meniscus of the knee.
flat feet are what type of finding?
flat feet
feet with no arches
may cause pain and swelling on the foot surface
lateral curvature of the spine with an increase in convexity on the side that is curved
the ballotment test
detects large amounts of fluid on the knee
If a client reports pain and has limited ROM of the cervical spine, the nurse should ask the client if?
he has slept wrong
has carried a heavy suitcase
have they been in a automobile accident
Impaired range of motion of the cervical spine and pain that radiates to the back, shoulders, or arms is associated with?
cervical disc degenerative disease or spinal cord tumor.
Impaired ROM
neck pain associated with fever, chills, and headache indicate?
serious infection such as meningitis
If a client reports low back pain that radiates down the back the nurse should ?
perform the Laseque's test: at the point of pain dorsiflex the foot
Osteporosis occurs when?
bone forming cells cannot keep pace with bone destroying cells.
Why is osteoporosis more common as a person ages?
bone resorption increases
calcium absorption decreases
production of osteoblasts decreases.
Vitamin D definciency can cause ?
Lateral bending of the thoracic and lumbar spine should be
35 degrees
Hyperextension of the thoracic and lumbar spine should be
about 30 degrees
rotation of the thoracic and lumbar spine should be
30 degrees
While performing the Laseque's test a client reports pain that shoots down one or both legs and below the knees would indicate a possible?
herniated intervertabral disc.
Continuous back pain with aching pain at night, not relieved by rest indicates?
Lower back pain with tenderness and limited ROM is common in clients with
If the nurses suspects a client has one leg longer than the other she would ?
ask client to lie down with legs extended and measure both legs
What should the nurse do once she inspects a reddened, swollen, mass on a client?
Palpate for tenderness
Painful and limited abduction of the arms accompanied by muscle weakness and atrophy are seen in clients with?
Rotator cuff tear
While inspecting the elbows if a nurses notices redness, heat, or swelling it could indicate?
bursitis of the olecranon process due to trauma or arthritis
epicondylitis is also known as
tennis elbow