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149 Cards in this Set

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Name the Germanic tribes that caused the western Roman Empire to collapse.
Visigoths, Vandals, Burgundians, and Ostrogoths
Which Germanic tribe played the greatest role in Europe?
Franks
Which Frankish ruler was brutal, cruel, and without a concience, who excelled as a military leader and who conquered the other Frrankish tribes and all of northern Gaul?
Clovis
What were Clovis and his successors called and why?
Merovingians; because Clovis traced his family back to an ancestor named Meroveg
How many people did Clovis ordered to be baptised after he converted for his wife?
3,000
What was one "do-nothing king" said to have done?
comb his long yellow curls with a jeweled comb
Which mayor of a palace succeeded in making the office of mayor hereditary?
Pepin II
Who was Pepin's son?
Charles Martel
What does Charles Martel mean?
"Charles the Hammer"
Where did Charles Martel's cavalry defeat the Moors thus halting the Muslim advance in western Europe and removing an immediate danger and a constant menace?
Tours, near France
Who was Charles Martel's son?
Pepin III or Pepin the Short
What did the pope crown Pepin (III) as?
"king by the grace of God"
what is "an example to be followed in the future"?
a precedent
Which Germanic tribe did the pope ask Pepin III for help fight against?
the Lombards
What is the territory that Pepin III conquered for the pope around Rome and that would be ruled by the pope for centuries called?
the "Donation of Pepin" or the "Papal States"
What was the name of Pepin III's son?
Charlemagne
True or False: Charlemagne had a lot of formal education.
FALSE
Which groups did Charlemage defeat and where did he defeat them at?
Lombards in Italy; Saxtons in northern Germany; and Avars in central Europe; he also drove the Moors back across the Pyrenees
Which pope placed a crown on Charlemagne's head?
Pope Leo III
What did Pope Leo III declare Charlemagne?
"Emperor of the Romans"
Where was Charlemagne crowned by Pope Leo III and when?
St. Peter's church; Christmas Day
Who ruled each of the several hundred regions that made up Charlemagne's empire?
a count
Where did Charlemagne establish his captial?
Aix-la-Chapelle
What is Aix-la-Chapelle known as today?
Aachen
Wat were the officals who were appointed by Charlemagne and who traveled throughout the empire to listen to complaints, review the effectiveness of laws, and to make certain the counts served the emperor rather than themselves called? What does this name mean in Latin?
missi dominici meaning "the lord's messenger"
True or False: The government under Charlemagne's rule levied direct taxes on land and people.
FALSE; the emperor's vast estates produced enough revenue to cover most of the government's low expenses
Who provided for Chalemagne's cavalry and how much time a year did free peasants usually served as soldiers?
wealthy peasants; three monthes
Possible essay question: What did Charlemagne do for education?
Charlemagne founded a school at his palace for his own children and other young nobles. He invited learned scholars from throughout western Europe to teach in the school. He had scholars produce a readable and authentic Bible and ordered bishops to create libraries and organize schools for children of the nobles and intelligent children of the lower classes.
True or False: Charlemange could read and write.
False; he could read but not write
What was one of Charlemagne's favorite books that urged all Christians to love God?
St. Augustine's "City of God"
True or False: Charlemagne never forced people to convert.
FALSE
What did Charlemagne do to those that refused baptism?
he executed them
What was the name of Chqarlemagne's only surviving son?
Louis the Pious
What were the three parts Louis's sons divided the empire after he died?
the eastern kingdom, middle kingdom, and the western kingdom
What was the agreement in which Louis' three sons agreed to divide the empire called?
the Treaty of Verdun
What happened to the middle kingdom?
it divided and split between the eastern and western kingdoms
What were the invaders that swarmed the empire called and which part did they invade?
Muslims terrorized the Mediterranean Coast conquering Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica; Slavs came from the east and conquered into central Europe; the Magyars, who were a group of nomads, came from Asia
What did the tactics of the Magyars resemble? What did Europeans call themselves because of this?
those of the Huns; Hungarians
Which feared Germanic invaders came from Scandinavia in the north to conquer the empire Charlemagne once controlled?
the Vikings
What did the English call the Vikings? What did other Europeans call them?
the Danes; Northmen or Norse
True or False: All classes under the Vikings worked and most people owned land.
TRUE
Was was the large Viking settlement in northwestern Frace called and why?
Normandy from the French word Normans for "Northmen"
The Vikings were savage and cruel people who were skilled in siege and struck terror in people everwhere. What did one Viking say in a complaint?
that "peace lasted so long that I was afraid I might come to die of old age, within doors, on a bed."
What were the Vikings' customs and myths centered on and what were these people?
god-heroes; who led their people bravely in life and symbolically sailed away in death
Which Arab attended a funeral for a Viking chieftain along the Volga?
Ibn Fadlan
What did the Vikings do in funerals?
they placed the dead person in a boat, set the boat adrift, and burned it.
According to the report of a Historian reportin on a funeral, what was the old woman who waited aboard a funeral ship called?
the Angel of Death
What did the girl in the historians report drink
a cup of nabidh
What is a political system in which kings and powerful nobles granted land to other nobles in return for loyalty, military assistance, and services called?
Feudalism
Possible essay question: Describe feudalism.
Feudalism arose when powerful nobles began to govern their own lands in the absence of a strong cetral government. In return for needed military help, weak kings granted the nobles the use of land from the royal estates. The strong nobles, who often had more land than they needed, granted part of this land to less powerful nobles in return for military help and other services. Many small landholders who needed protection gave their land to more powerful nobles. The small landholder retained the right to occupy and work the lands but had little to provide military service to the noble.
In feudalism, what was the person who granted land called? What was the person who held land in return for services called?
lord; vassal
In feudalism, what was a grant of land called? Where did this name come from?
a fief; from the Latin word feudum which came from the word feudal
What was the role of women in feudalism
Women could influence society but they had limited legal property rights. Her dowry sometimes included fiefs but her husband controlled the dowry unless he died.
What was the system in which the fief became hereditary known of? Could a fief be divided? Who was always inherited it?
primogeniture; no; the eldest son
What was the role of the church in the feudal system?
the church owned vast amounts of land which it granted as fiefs to nobles in exchange for military protection
What is the first point in the relationship between lord and vassal?
It was an honrable relationship between legal equals. Only nobles could be vassals. The greater lords were vassals and tenants of the king. The less powerful lords were vassals and tenants of the greater lords, and so on down.
What was the second point between lord and vassal?
The same man might be both vassal and lord-vassal to a more powerful lord above him and lord to a less powerful vassal below him.
What is the third point between lord and vassal?
It was a very personal relationship. Each man owed loyalties and obligations only to the lord immediately above him or to the vassal immediately below him.
Who had more obligations, he vassal or the lord? Why was this?
the vassal had more obligations and had to provide the lord a certain number of army units and had to pay the expenses while at war
What did the vassal have to do for his lord?
He had to make payments to cover expenses such as ransom if the lord was kept captive in war. The vassal had to house and feed the lord and his companions for a certain amount of time and attend certain ceremonies such as the marrige of the lord's daughter
What were the three ways that decisions at trials in feudalism were made?
1) Trial by battle- the accused and the accuser, or men representing them, fought a duel. The outcome of the duel determined guilt or innocence.
2) Compurgation, or oath-taking- The accused and the accuser each gathered a group of people who swore that "their" man was telling the truth. Compurgators, the oath-takers, were similar to the character witnesses in today's trials.
3) Ordeal- The accused carried a piece of hot iron in his hand, or walked through fire, or plunged his arm into a pot of boiling water to pick up a hot stone. If his wounds healed rapidly, he was judged innocent; otherwise he was guilty.
What were most wars stemmed from?
Private fights between feudal lords or between lords and vassals
Along with an iron helmet, knights wore a shirt of small metal links hooked together to for flexible armor. What was this shirt called?
chain mail
What did a knight carry?
a sword, large shield, and a lance
What later replaced chain mail?
metal plates
What were the decrees that the church issued that set aside certain places, such as churches, where fighting was not permitted called?
the Peace of God
What was the decree issued by the church that forbade fighting on weekends and holidays?
the Truce of God
The Truce of God eventually allowed how many legal days of fighting in a year?
80
What was a large estate that included the manor house, pastures, fields, and a village called?
a manor
The lord and peasants shared the land of a manor. What percentage of the manor land did the lord keep and what was it called?
one third; the domain
What did the peasants get to do on the manor land in exchange for paying for their two thirds of land?
they gave the lord part of their crops, worked on his land, performed services on the manor, and paid taxes
What system was used for the cultivated land of the manor?
The land was divided into three parts. Two were planted each year while the third gained fertility. The land was divided into strips given to each peasant and the lord if the domain was stripped.
What were the peasants who were bound to the manor and could not leave without the lord's permission (which cost a lot) called?
serfs
What did diet mainly consisted of in a feudal society?
mainly coarse black bread, cabbage and a few othervegetables, cheese, and eggs; beer and wine were plentiful in certain areas; rarely ate meat
What was the average life expectancy of a medieval person?
40 years
True or false: People moved around and rarely died in the village they were born. They fleed when a distaster, such as famine struck.
FALSE; everything exactly opposite
True or false: throghout the Middle Ages, the lords had a castle which served as his home, enforced his authority, and protected the countryside. These castles were always great stone structures.
FALSE; throughout the early medieval period, they were made of earth and wood
A castle was often built on a hill or place where it could easily be used to defend. When it was located on a flat surface, a lake of water often surrounded it. What was this lake called?
a moat
What was the main part of the castle called and what was it used for?
the keep which was the strong tower; it contained storerooms, barracks, and workshops, as well ass the lord's living quarters.
What was the function of the great hall part of the castle?
The lord had visitors in the hall; the family lived there; there was little furniture, the walls made the rooms dark, damp and chilly, and animals ran across the straw covered floor
What was marriage viewed as in medieval society?
a way to advance one's fortune
What did the nobles and vassals do to amuse themselves?
They held mock battles called tournaments which often lead to loss of life; they later became safter and were like pageants
What is a code of conduct for knights called? Where does this word come from
chivalry; from the French word cheval meaning "horse"
What did a noble have to do to become a knight?
prove himself in battle and be knighted by any other knight
Later, becoming a knight became more complex. What are the two preliminary stages a boy had to go throught to become one?
At the age of seven, he became a page, or knight's attendant that learned knightly manners and began his training in the use of weapons; in his early teens he became a squire, or knights assistant and continued his training along with taking care of the knight's equipment. When the squire was proven worthy in battle, an elaborate religious ceremony made him a knight.
What did chivalry require?
chivalry required a knight to be brave; tricks and strategy were considered cowardly; had to be loyal, honest, and kind to women
To whom did knights extend their courtesy?
only to those of his own class or higher
The knights had symbols for themselves that they mounted on banners or shields. Did the sons of the knights come up with their own symbols?
No, they inherited them from their fathers
What was later added to helmets?
three-dimensional crests that mostly depicted aggressive animals
What did knights often do when they stayed at an inn?
hang his coat of arms outside
Who had a coat of arms with a white heart?
Richard II
What rank was the lowest in the clergy hierarchy?
The parish priest- usually of peasant origin, little formal education, served the people in the parish- smallest division of the church
What are the sacraments?
special ceremonies at which the participants received the direct favor, or grace, of God to help them ward off the consequences of sin
The parish priests administered how many of the sacraments?
five of the seven
What were the seven ceremonies that the church recognized as sacred?
baptism, Holy Eucharist (communion), confirmation (admission to church membership), penance (acts showing repentance for sins), ordination (holy orders), matrimony, and extreme unction (the anointing of the dying).
What else did the parish priest do?
supervised moral and religious instruction of his people and moral life of the community
What did the villagers sometimes rely on for spiritual help?
local "wise women" and "cunning men"
What was the second from the bottom in the ranking of the clergy in the hierarchy of the church?
the bishop- managed the dioceses-group of parishes; often chose their own family connections and political power, and were often lords or vassals who had vassals themselves
What was the official church of the bishiop that was located in the most important city of the diocese? Where did this name come from?
th cathedral church; Cathedra which is the Latin word for the vishop's throne, or chair
Who was third from the bottom in the clergy in the hierarchy of the church?
archbishop- managed the dioceses and had powers of bishops; in addition, exercised authority over other dioceses and bishops
What was fourth from the bottom in the clergy in the hierarchy of the church?
pope and his curia- pope had group of counselors called the curia; cardinals were the most important of the curia; later, the cardinals elected a new pope
True or false: in the church hierarchy, a commoner could not rise in power.
FALSE
Who was originally a slave of a Christian master in Rome and was later freed, became bishop, and later served as pope?
Callistus I
What was the group that the priests, bishops, and people belong to called?
the secular clergy
What did the secular clergy live in and what does this word mean?
saeculo; a Latin phrase meaning "in the world" or "among ordinary people"
What group did the monks and nuns belong to in the church?
the regular clergy
The regular clergy lived according toa strict rule known as what?
regula
Monks started out living alone. They later gathered in religious communities known as what? What did the nuns live in?
monasteries; convents
What was the way of life in monasteries and convents like? What was this way of life called?
They withdrawed from the world and its temptations and served God through prayer, fasting, and self-denial; monasticism
Which young Roman noble became disgusted with wordly corruption and left Rome to become a hermit?
Benedict
Benedict gathered followers and established a monastery where?
Monte Cassino in central Italy
Benedict put up a set of standards to regulate the lives of the monks. Monasteries throughout Europe adopted this set of standards known as what?
the Benedictine Rule
What did the Beneditine Rule demand?
a monk didn't own anything, everything he used or wore belonged to the community of monks
What was the elected head of the community of monks, the person who was elected head of the community and who controlled and distributed all property called?
the abbot
True or false; The monks, in addition to praying, spent time doing work they're assigned to do by the abbot.
TRUE
Were there more monasteries or more convents?
more monasteries
What did some monks leave their monasteries to become?
missionaries
Name two important missionaries.
St. Patrick in Ireland and St. Augustine in England
Who sent missionaries to England who were led by Augustine and who converted many people?
Pope Gregory I
What was Augustine later made and came to be known as?
the first archbishop of Canterbury; St. Augustine of Canterbury
Who coppied most of the books in the Middle Ages?
the monks
What are the small paintings at the beginning of a page or in the margins of books called?
illuminated manuscripts
What was the code of law of the church called?
canon law
What did the church issue to punish an entire region?
an interdict;
What was the tax that took a portion of a person's income called? How much of the income did it take?
the tithe; one-tenth
What was the tax of one penny a year on every household called?
Peter's Pence
True or false: At one point, the church had more power than all the kings of Europe combined.
True
True or false: The church considered the family a sacred institution.
TRUE
True or false: The church allowed divorce under certain conditions.
FALSE; it forbade divorce
What did the church establish to relieve the sick and distressed?
hospitals, orphanages, and poorhouses
What is the first problem the church faced at the peak of its power?
lay investiture- a process in which nobles rewarded their loyal friends or relatives by appointing them bishops and abbots; the tremendous wealth of the church created a problem
What is the second problem the church faced at its peak?
worldly livesof the clergy- some members of the clergy lived in luxury therefore were criticized
What is the third problem the church faced at its peak?
Simony- people paid to get positions in the church, known as simony
What is the fourth problem the church faced at its peak?
heresy- church didn't permit anyone to question the basic principles, or doctrines of the Christian religion; those who denied the truth of these principles were considered heretics, or unbelievers guilty of unpardonable sin of heresy
What were the two religious groups, or orders, that dedicated themselves to reform?
Franciscans- founded by St. Francis of Assisi; the Dominicans, founded by St. Dominic
What did the members of these two church orders do that other members of the church didn't do?
they didn't seclude themselves
What was the search in which the pope ordered the Dominicans to seek out heretics and eliminate heresy called?
the Inquisition
During the Inquisition, what happened to one suspected of heresy?
He was tried in secret and tortured in order to force a confession
What happened to those that confessed during the Inquisition? What happened to those that didn't confess?
forced to perform penance; turned over to civil government to be punished, usually burned at stake
What were two of the Germanic tribes taht came as raiders?
The Angles and the Saxons
What are the descendants of the Angles and the Saxons called?
Anglo-Saxons
Where does the word "England" come from?
Engla-land meaning "land of the Angles"; refers to the eastern island of the British Isles
The Anglo-Saxons formed several small independent kingdoms which later combined into which three important ones?
1) Northumbria 2) Mercia 3) Wessex
The Anglo-Saxons later divided their three kingdoms into governmental districts called what?
shires
What were the officials that governed the shires called?
shire-reeves (which is where "sheriffs" came from)
When the Wessex kings had control of most of Europe, which group came from the north an met little resistance?
The Vikings, known as the Danes to the Anglo-Saxons
Which ruler came to the throne of Wessex determined to drive the Danes out?
Alfred the Great
How did Alfred the Great drive out the Danes (Vikings)?
He gave them a huge tribute or sum of money.
After paying the Danes to leave Wessex land, Alfred the Great attacked the Danes and had a peace treaty in which the Danish couldn't settle in an area of land called what?
Danelaw