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50 Cards in this Set

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Mukden/Manchurian Incident
-Occurred in Manchuria in September 1931, when Japanese troops blew up part of the South manchurian Railway
-Japan accused China of sabotage and used the incident as a pretext to annex Manchuria
-By 1932, Japanese troops gained control of manchuria and established a puppet state in the region.
-The League of Nations Japan's actions; Japan responded by withdrawing from the League
-Following its withdrawal from the League, Japan began to aggressively pursue a militaristic and expansionist policy and in 1937 launched a full-scale invasion of China.
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
-An organization of producers of oil established in 1960. Member nations include Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Kuwaiti, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela.
-Goal: to control the price of oil through cooperation
-Power lessened in the 1980s as a result of overproduction and the Iran-Iraq and Gulf wars
Mikhail Gorbachev
-Controlled the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991
-Introduced reforms glastnost (openness) and perestroika (economic restructuring); led people to speak out against the Soviet state.
-Backed free-market reforms, which were in direct violation of the communist economic philosophy
-Mid-1991: communist hardliners attempted an unsuccessful coup d'etat, which was followed by Gorbachev's resignation
-Agreed not to enforce the Brezhnev Doctrine, a pledge to maintain Communism in satellite nations, instead allowing Eastern bloc nations to determine their own political fortunes.
Iron Curtain: Demise
In November 1989, the Berlin Wall was opened, allowing people to travel freely from east to west; soon the entire wall was torn down, symbolizing the end of the Cold War.
-With the end of the Cold War, Democracy spread across eastern Europe, and the Iron Curtain that had for so long represented the symbolic division of Europe no longer existed.
Fall of Soviet Union
-Failed invasion of Afghanistan contributed to the decline as resources were strained to support an unpopular and ultimately unsuccessful attempt to expand Soviet influence.
-Gorbachev's reforms: glastnost(openness) and perestroika(economic restructuring) led people to speak out against the Soviet state
-1989: the fall of the Berlin Wall was as sign that East Germany no longer was backed by the Soviet Union.
-Solidarity movement in Poland, led by Lech Walesa, was outlawed by Soviets but ultimately successful
-1991: Estonia, Latavia, and Lithuania regained independence, and other Soviet republics followed.
Nuclear Arms Race since the Fall of the Soviet Union
-With the collapse of the Soviet Union, both the United States and Russia dramatically reduced their nuclear weapons spending
-India and Pakistan, two nations with a violent history of territorial disputes, raced to develop nuclear weapons
-Today only five other nations have successfully tested nuclear weapons
Genocide
-The killing of a specific group of people based on specific ethnic, religious, or racial characteristics
-The Holocaust, led by Hitler in Germany, included a plan callled the Final Solution to eliminate the Jews and produce a "pure" Aryan race.
-Ethnic cleansing, led by Slobodan Milosovic in the Balkans, was an attempt to eliminate Bosnians
-Ethnic conflict in Rwanda led to a mass killing of Hutus and Tutsis as they wrestled for control
-Genocide was committed in Cambodia(Kampuchea) and Armenia
-1948: the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states the rights that all human beings are born with; the UN has put on trial those who have violated the declaration
Feminism
-Women make up 40 to 50 percent of workforce in industrialized societies, 20 percent in developing countries. Jobs characterized as "women's work": teaching, clerical work
-Discrimination in the workplace is the catalyst for teh women's movement; women also fought for equality in all aspects of life, including control over their own bodies (birth control, abortions)
-U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbids discrimination based on sex or race.
-China: women have never gained full equality, although communist governments did grant them more rights; traditional Confucian values limit their ability to advance
-India: in the 1980s, literacy rate low among women (25%), with women
Islamic Fundamentalism
-The term is often used by western sources to describe an extreme movement to replace secular states wtih Islamic ones
-Increased in popularity as an extremist movement to opposition to westernization reforms in Muslim countries in the Middle East
-Libya: Muammar al-Qaddafi gained power as the result of a coup d'etat in 1969. The government he instituted was based on Islamic principles. He supported subsequent revolutionary groups and their activities in an effort to spread Islamic beliefs.
-Iran: in an effort to overturn Shah Pahlavi's Western reforms, in 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini led Islamic fundamentalists in a coup d'etat, wrestled control of the government from the ailing shah, and instituted an Islamic Republic
-Turkey: in an effort to overturn Western reforms first introduced by Kemal Ataturk, Islamic fundamentalists increased their power by systematically increasing support and influence in political parties during the 1990s
Intifada
-Part of the Arab-Israeli conflict over the struggle for control of Israel that began as a result of U.N. Resolution 181, in which the United Nations created Israel from lands claimed by Palestinians
-Launched in 1987 by young Palestinians, the intifada (uprising) attacked Israeli soldiers with homemade bombs and rocks
-Crackdowns on violence by the Israeli government only fueled further conflict
Persian Gulf War (1991)
-Saddam Hussein's Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait and took control of its oil fields
-The U.S. response was initially a trade embargo because they saw this action as a threat to the flow of oil and to Saudi Arabia. However, with the Middle eastern nations pitted against each other, peace-keeping troops were soon sent in to Saudi Arabia.
-Hussein refused to withdraw his troops; the Persian Gulf War began and quickly ended after kuwait was liberated and Hussein withdrew
Asian Tigers
-Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan enjoyed rapid growth rates and were major economic powers by the 1980s.
-Completely economically with Japan, even though they suffered from limitations (lack of natural resources, overpopulation, and shortage of capital)
-Later joined by Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia
Global Problems
-Poverty: Unequal distributions of resources and income (scarcity) leads to poverty, especially in underdeveloped areas of Africa, Latin America, eastern Europe, and Asia. People in these areas lack food, clean water, and adequate shelter.
-Trafficking: Women, children, and others may be used to transport drugs, or forced into servitude (sexual or domestic), especially problematic in Russia, the Ukraine, and south Asia
-HIV/AIDS: An infection that can spread through sexual intercourse, through blood transfusions or contact with infected blood, or from mother to child during birth or breast feeding. Especially problematic in African countries because medicines are expensive and education on the topic is limited
-Terrorism: The deliberate use of unpredictable violence, especially against civilians, to gain revenge or achieve political goals
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
-Established in 1949, as a military alliance of democratic nations against Soviet aggression
-Original members: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States
-Goal: to form a military alliance to maintain peace through collective defense in postwar Europe
-Admission of Germany in 1955 led to the Soviet formation of the Warsaw Pact
-Although the Cold War is over, NATO still exists today
Warsaw Pact
-A defensive military alliance of communist nations designed to counter the collective defense formed by the democratic nations of NATO
-Original members: Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria
-NATO and the Warsaw Pact provided the foundation for the Cold War
Geneva Conference
-Cold War peace conference held in 1954
-Vietnam would be temporarily divided at the seventeenth parallel, North Vietnam to be controlled by communist leader Ho Chi Minh and South Vietnam to remain in control of noncommunists. Led to U.S. support of the French war effort and South Vietnam
-U.S. President Eisenhower feared the domino theory would befall Vietnam (if one southeast Asian country fell to communism, they all would)
-Geneva agreement required elections, which would have elected Ho Chi Minh. The US advocated canceling elections and instituting a democratic government in South Vietnam-- a violation of the Geneva Agreement
Korean War
-Following World War II, Korea, which had been annexed by Japan, was occupied by both the Soviet Union and the US-- the Soviet Union north of the 38th parallel and the US south of it. The occupation was to be fo a limited time while the terms of uniting the country were negotiated.
-Each occupied zone adopted the political ideology of its occupying nation
-In 1950, the communist leader of North Korea, Kim Il Sung, invaded South Korea. The US policy of containment ensured US interention on behalf of South Korea
-The United Nations condemned the invasion and under the leadership of the United States a multilateral force fought to push North Korea out of South Korea. China eventually entered the war on the side of North Korea
-A 1953 cease-fire agreement divided Korea along the 38th parallel; the nation remains divided by a demilitarized zone
-The Korean War, the first major armed Cold War conflict, led the United States to a more aggressive containment policy, extending military and economic support to nations throughout Asia
Cuban Revolution
-In 1959, Marxist leader Fidel Castro ousted Cuban dictator Fulgenico Batista and took control of Cuba
- Castro nationalized industries throughout the country (many businesses had been American owned) and initiated a series of aggressive land reforms. In response, the United States imposed an economic embargo on Cuba.
-Castro quickly formed an alliance with the Soviet Union
-Cuba, significantly impacted by the Soviet Union's collapse in the early 1990's, remains a communist nation
Cuban Missile Crisis
-Leader of communist Cuba, Fidel Castro, formed an alliance with Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, after the Bay of Pigs Incident and an attempted assassination by rebels funded by the US
-Castro permitted Stali nto build nuclear missile bases in Cuba
-US President Kennedy demanded removal of nuclear weapons from Cuba nad set up a naval blockade, which effectively cut Cuba off from the Soviet Union, until an agreement was reached
-Soviets agreed on two conditions- the US would removed missiles from Turkey within six months and would not invade Cuba
Nonalignment
-Nations did not take a side in the Cold War
-Nations that remained neutral included India, Yugoslavia, and many African nations
-Goal: avoid involvement in the Cold War and maintain and increase economic progress
Arab Nationalism
Former Arab colonies easily gained independence from their mother countries post-World War II
-Arab nations: Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan
-Superpowers quickly attempted to fill the void created by the vacuum of power-- attractive because the region is rich in oil and had strategic military based for Cold War operations
-British mandate in Palestine was intended to provide Arabs with a secure homeland; however, same land was promised to the Jews in the Balfour Declaration of 1917. Creation of Israel led to the Arab-Israeli conflict.
-Extreme Nationalists formed the Palestine Liberation Organization in an effort to combat the Jewish state
Creation of Israel
-Created by the United Nations in 1947 as a result of UN Resolution 181
-Divided Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state
-Jews accepted teh plan: the US and the Soviet Union recognized Israel as a nation, but Arabs refused to recognize it
-1948: Britain withdrew and fighting began and continues today
-Major wars include the Six-Day War and the Yom Kippur War
Decolonization
-In the post- World war II world, mother countries could no longer maintain control of their colonies as they attempted to repair their own war-torn lands.
-There was mounting pressure from nationalist movements within the colonies for home rule
-Imperial powers ended colonial possessions, thus ending imperial rule across the globe
-Newly independent states struggleed to maintin autonomy and evelop self-determination in the shadow of the Cold War.
More than 90 nations gained independence from the end of the war to 1980
Indian Independence
Post-World War II, overseas empires became increasingly difficult to maintain, Great Britain held on, but election of the Labour Party ushered in a movement toward home rule.
-Leaders of the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League worked with Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru to start a movement called communalism- an effort to get Indians to act and feel as one nation
-Gandhi advocated passive resistance and nonviolence- methods of peaceful protest that were designed to draw public support from around the world and identify the British as forceful tyrants
-Boycotts of British goods and against British policies were conducted
-India was granted independence in 1947
- In 1947, India was partioned :India gained its independence and the country of Pakistan was created as an islamic Republic
-Partition led to conflict that still exists today
Pan-Africanism
-Pan-African movements first emerged in the US and the Caribbean and the ns pread to French West as the Negritude
-Negritude strove to revive African Culture and traditions- African pride was expressed by poets and artists
-Negritude was coupled with a movement to remove foreign European influence
-A new class of African elite arose to lead the movement for independence
Jomo Kenyatta
-A kenyan nationalist leader, who led a moement to gain independence from Great Britain. He was jailed in 1953 by the British government in its effort to suppress all nationalist movements.
-As resistance to colonial rule increased, the British responded by increasing military strikes with artillery, boomers, and jet fighters
-1956: resistance was crushed and 12,000 Africans and 100 Europeans were dead as a result of the conflict
-Kenya ultimately gained independence in 1963; Kenyetta was elected Kenya's first prime minister
European Community
-Formed in 1957, six founding member nations: France, Belgium, West Germany, Luxembourg, Italy, and the Netherlands; characterized by a common market and free trade
-Signed the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community (renamed the European Community); goal: to dissolve tariffs and increase free trade
-Treaties among member nations also created the Council of Ministers and European Parliament to achieve the long-term goal of political integration
-Maestrict Treaty of 1993 established the European Union; fifteen member nations who ceded some political power and adopted a common currency (the Euro)
Detente
-Policy adopted by the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War in an effort to reduce tensions between the two superpowers over the arms race and control of developing countries
-Encouraged cooperations in the following areas: environmental research, space explorations, health research, and cultural diffusion
-Assisted in the signing of SALT I and SALT II (Strategic Arms Limitations Talks) in 1972 and 1979, respectively
-Deteriorated as US relations with China improved and following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Vietnam War
-The United Statees intervened in the conflict on the side of noncommunist South Vietnam after the French were defeated
-Military involvement increased under presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson; in 1968 more than 500,000 troops were engaged in Vietnam
-US public opinion pressured President Nixon to vow to end US military involvement in Vietnam, and he subsequently adopted a policy of Vietnamization (strategy of turning the war over to the Japanese)
-1973: uS phase of the Vietnam War ended with the Paris Peace Accords; two years later the agreements were thrown out as North Vietnam and the NFL (National Liberation Front, not National Footbal League hohoho) waged war against South Vietnam until they achieved their goal of unification in 1976
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
-Muslim-controlled Afghanistan maintained a position of nonalignment in the Cold War until 1978, when a pro-Soviet coup dragged the country into a civil war
-People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) gained control and radically reformed laws regarding family, land, and education; the new laws were in direct opposition to Muslim beliefs and led to military resistance
-Soviet Union sided with the PDPA and installed Babrak Karmal as president; he used the Soviet military to gain control of the country, an unpopular move
-A nine-year battle ensured in which the US, Iran, China, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan backed the Afghan mujahideen (Islamic warriors)
-The United Nations organized a cease-fire, and the Soviets withdrew in 1989 with fighting continuing until 1992
-In large measure due to political instability in the region, the Taliban gained control in 1994
Apartheid
-Established by the Afrikaner National Party in 1948 in an effort to maintain control over the black African majority
-Meaning "separateness," it was the policy of legal segregation imposed by the white minority government in South Africa
-13 percent of the least-arable land (homelands) was reserved for the black and colored South Africans
-Nonwhites were segregated based on ethnic identities into a variety of subgroups in another effort to prevent organized black resistance
-African National Congress (ANC) was the most vocal in its protest of this policy, and many of its leaders, including Nelson Mandela, were jailed for their efforts to end apartheid
-International pressure was eventually applied through the use of economic sanctions in hopes of ending the policy
-1990: FW DeKlerk (National Party) became the president of South Africa; he released Nelson Mandela from jail and worked with the ANC to end apartheid
Nelson Mandela
-A leader of the ANC (African National Congress), arrested for military protests against apartheid and sentenced to jail for life
-Became a symbol of the anti-apartheid movement and white oppression
-Released from jail by President FW DeKlerk in 1990
-1994: became the first black president of South Africa following the nation's first free elections
Iranian Revolution
-1941: Muhammed Reza Pahlavi declared himself shah. Backed by the US and Britain, he modernized and westernized Iran
-Pahlavi's reforms were in direct opposition to Muslim beliefs; an opposition party quickly rose against Pahlavi, led by an Islamic fundamentalist-- Ayatollah Khomeini
-1979: Pahlavi fled Iran; Khomeini declared Iran an Islamic republic
-New government overturned all of Pahlavi's reforms: banned western movies, books, and music and instituted strict adherence to Muslim traditions
-As leader of Iran, Khomeini worked to establish Islamic republics throughout the Middle East
Iran-Iraq war
-1979: Saddam Hussein became the leader of Iraq and seized control over disputed border area
-Hussein used power to invade Iran in 1980; his goal was a quick victory over Iran and a pan-Arab movement throughout the Middle East
-War lasted eight years and killed one million soldiers
-The United States got involved when both sides at tacked oil tankers in the Persian Gulf
-Persian Gulf War followed: in 1991, Iraq invaded Kuwait and seized control of oil fields--- the US and its allies intervened and liberated Kuwait
Deng Xiaoping
-1976: replaced Mao Zedong as leader of communist China; introduced new economic reforms but little extension of individual political rights
-Four Modernizations: an attempt by Deng to promote trade and contact with the West; he introduced reforms in the areas of farming, industry, science and technology, and defense
-Deng reformed land distribution and allowed private ownership after government needs were met; private businesses helped China's economy; also led to an increasing gap between rich and poor
-Deng encouraged foreign investments of technology and capital
-Tianenmen Square (1989): Chinese students peacefully protested lack of political freedoms; on Deng's orders the government opened fire on defenseless citizens and killed or wounded thousands; a demonstration of the importance that government placed on maintaining order; Deng, as a moderate leader, was willing to make economic reforms, but not plitical ones
Globalization
-Goal: a global economy to facilitate the movement of goods and trade associated with the term free trade (trade unrestricted by state limits as it crosses borders)
-IMF (International Monetary Fund), established in 1944 to promote free trade and increase growth rates of nations
-GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), concluded in 1947 to lessen barriers and promote free trade (there were 123 member nations by 1994), all agreed to form the WTO (World Trade Organization)
-NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), concluded in 1993- The US, Canada, and Mexico created the world's second largest free-trade zone
Japanese Invasion of China (1937)
-Japan launched a full-scale invasion of China in the hopes of gaining control of China's extensive natural resources
-Japan quickly gained control of northern and eastern China
-The international community condemned the attack but was ill-prepared to stop it
-Japan faced little opposition in China until well after the start of World War II; with the US entry into the war after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Japan was forced to redirect its efforts to protect its empire throughout the Pacific
Rape of Nanking
-Following Japan's invasion of mainland China in 1937, China experienced mass death and suffering; Japan began aerial bombing of major Chinese cities (especially Shanghai, where people died by the thousands)
-Japanese troops, fueled by racial superiority, extreme nationalism, and the fervor of war, unleashed an attack on Nanking. Over two months, Japanese soldiers murdered thousands of unarmed soldiers and civilians, raped an estimated 7,000 women, and burned a third of the homes
-An estimated 400,000 were killed either by Japanese bayonets or from being machine-gunned into open pits
Blitzkreig ("Lightning War")
-Germans invaded Poland unannounced on September 1, 1939. Their strategy included a preemptive air attack, to weaken resistance, followed by land forces - Panzer ("armored") columns, which were fast and mobile
-German forces subdued enemies in the west within one month (at that time Soviets suppressed any problems in the east in accordance with the Nazi-Soviet Pact)
-The sudden success of Germany's blitzkrieg approach was a shock to the rest of the world (especially France and Great Britain)
Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
-In an attempt to destroy American naval forces in the Pacific, Japan attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941
-President Franklin D Roosevelt called it "a date which will live in infamy"
-Japanese pilots took off from six aircraft carriers and attacked in two waves; they disabled eighteen ships and destroyed two hundred others, the only exception being aircraft carriers not at the base at the time
-December 11, 1941, Hitler and Mussolini declared war on the US; the US responded by joining the Allies
Dropping of the Atomic Bomb
-The war in Europe ended in May 1945 but waged on in the Pacific
-US General MacArthur gainedground with his island-hopping campaign; fall of Sipan, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa gave US bombers access to Japanese main islands
-President Truman issued a vague warning and then dropped the first world's atomic bomb (da bomb) on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. When Japan did not surrender, he dropped a second on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.
-Meanwhile, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, August 8, 1945. The result of these combined efforts was the surrender of Japan, announced by Emperor Hirohito on August 15, 1945, and the subsequent US occupation of Japan until 1952
US Occupation of Japan
-Following Japan's unconditional surrender in World War II, Japan was occupied by US forces under General Douglas MacArthur
-MacArthur ensured that Japan's transformation would benefit the US and its Allies
-A new constitution, adopted in 1947, instituted democratic reforms. The emperor retained his title but had no military or political power. The country developed a parliamentary democracy; a diet made the political decisions
-Japan's military was severely limited, although the nation was permitted to create a self-defense force in 1954
-The occupation ended in 1952, although the US still maintains bases in Japan
-Following US occupation, Japan's resources were committed to a course of aggressive industrialization. As a result, today Japan is one of the world's economic superpowers
Jewish Holocaust
-Nazi regime killed over 6 million Jews and an additional 5 million Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, communists, and other "undesirables"-a human disaster on a previously unknown scale
-Genocide was assisted by an historic acceptance of anti-Semitism in Europe
-German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 opened the door for release of SS Einsatzgruppen (action squads), which killed entire populations of Jews in newly acquired territories; in six months the squads had killed 1.4 million Jews
-Final Solution, a plan to kill all Jews in Europe, was discussed by leading Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference, January 20, 1942. All remaining Jews were to be evacuated to death camps in eastern Polan
-Camps at Auschwitz, Belzec, and Treblinka used methods such as gassing, electrocution, flamethrowers, phenol injections, machine guns, and hand grenades
-Nuremberg Trials held after World War II to try Nazi war criminals for crimes against humanity
United Nations
-Created at the end of World War II as a coalition dedicated to maintaining world peace and security. had more power than the League of Nations, which had been ineffective in preventing World War II
-Representatives from the US, China, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and France finalized the majority of the charter's provisions in 1944, before the war was even over
-Final version solidified in San Francisco in 1945
-Today, the focus is to provide humanitarian assistance around the world to areas in need through a variety of organizations
Cold War: Origins
-The Cold War was an ideological war between two ideologically opposed superpowers
-Establishment of US foreign policies: Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan aimed at the containment of communism; US pledge to resist the spread of communism increased tensions between the two superpowers
-Division of postwar Germany into four occupation zones set the stage for democracy vs. communism; tensions rose when the US continued to supply a cutoff West Berlin inside the Soviet sector
-NATO and Warsaw Pact military alliances created during peace time increased tensions
-Satellite nations created a bloc of communist nations in Eastern Europe
-Both superpowers' commitment to nuclear arsenals led to an arms race
-The two powers even competed to be the first in space
Iron Curtain: Creation
-First articulated in a 1946 speech by English Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the term refers to the symbolic division of Europe following the end of World War II
-Eastern block nations were under the influence of the Soviet Union and communism; these nations, including Poland and East Germany, originated new alliance systems (for both economic and military purposes), notably the Warsaw Pact
-The nations to the west of the curtain developed and maintained market economies. The majority of these nations were allied with the US
-The Iron Curtain symbolized the emerging Cold War and the "peaceful competition," as articulated by Nikita Khruschchev in 1961, between capitalism and communism
-In 1961, the construction of the Berlin Wall, built to reinforce the border between East and West Berlin, became a visible symbol of the curtain and thus the Cold War
Nuclear Arms Race
-as the Cold War progressed, a new reality emerged: the struggle between the US and the Soviet Union to claim polical hegemony across the globe led to an expensive arms race and the proliferation of nuclear weapons
-Although the US had been first to test and use the atomic bomb, the Soviet Union tested their own by 1949
-Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, both nations continud to build nuclear arsenals. Each side also had the technology, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), to directly attack the other
-This arms race redefined war and diplomacy. An awareness on both sides that any direct fighting between the two could lead to nuclear war led to a new Cold War reality: mutually assured destruction (MAD)
-MAD did not slow down the pace of weapon building. A new concept emerged, deterrence: as long as each side had a tremendous aresenal of weapons, neither side would attack
-In the mid 1960s, the US began to explore the possibility of arms control and/or reduction. In 1972, SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty), signed by the two nations, established limits and restraints on their weapons programs
Satellite Nations
-Soviet-occupied nations at the end of World War II: Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania. Soviets set up a communist government in Poland
-Other nations: Stalin prevented free elections and suppressed noncommunist political parties, in essence creating a one-party government
-Basic rationale for occupation of eastern Europe came from Allied belief that any territory that was liberated could be subsequently occupied and controlled by the liberator (ie: Japan by the US)
-The US accepted the creation of a communist bloc, the rationale being that communism would not be eliminated, only stopped from spreading
-Satellite nations were to join the Warsaw Pact and serve as a buffer zone between the Soviet Union and the democratic West
Trumane Doctrine
-Established March 12, 1947 by President Harry Truman-- an economic and military program intended to help nations resist Soviet aggression and prevent the spread of communism
-Based on the theory of containment (limiting communism to areas already under Soviet control)
-Developed in direct response to crises in Greece and Turkey
-Provided over $400,000,000 in aid to nations committed to the development of democratic governments
Marshall Plan
-Also known as the European Recovery Program, a massive economic aid package, part of the containment policy, designed to strengthen democracy and lessen the appeal of communism (developed after WWII)
-Over 13 Billion dollars was sent to war-torn western European countries to help them recover from war
-A US offer to aid eastern Europe was refused by Stalin. Established by the Soviet Union, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), an alternative to the Marshall plan, offered increased trade in eastern Europe and the Soviet Union in an effort to supplement funds not being received by denying the Marshall Plan