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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
memory
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionaly significant moment or event
encoding
the processing of information into the memory ststem- for example, by extracting meaning.
storage
the retention of encoded information over time
retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory
the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory stystem
short term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as teh seven digits of a phone numbe while dialing, before the informatino is sotred or forgotten. Also known as working memory is a similar conecept tha tfocuses more on the processing of briefly stored information.
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limiless store house of the memory system.
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well learned information, such as word meanings.
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
rehearsal
the conscious repetition of informaiton, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or pracice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best teh last and first items in a list.
visual encoding
the encoding of picture images.
acoustic encoding
the encoding of sound, especialy the sound of words.
semantic encoding
the encoding ofo meaning, including the meaning of words.
imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to efforful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
mnemonics
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
chunking
organizting items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tencths of a second.
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and owrdss can still be recalled within 3 of 4 seconds.
long term potentiation (LTP)
an in crease in a synapses' firing potential after brief rapid stimulation. bel.ieved to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
amnesia
the loss of memory.
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection. also called procedural memory.
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can conscioulsy know and "declrea." (also called declarative memory.
hippocampus
a neural center located in teh limbic system tha thelps process explicit memories for storage.
recall
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill in the blank test.
recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previosuly learned, as on a multiple choice test
relearning
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved whenm learning material for aseocnd time
priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
deja vu
that eeries sense that "ive experienced this before. " cues from teh currnet situation may subconsciously trigger retreival of an earlier experience.
mood congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences tha t are consisten with ones current good or bad mood.
proactive interfernece
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
retroactive interference
the disruptive effec tof enw learnign on teh recall of old information.
repression
in psychoanalytic theory the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciouness anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
misinformation effect
incorporatin misleading information into one's memory of an event.
source amnesia
attriuting to th e wrong source an event tha twe have experienced, heard bout, read aobut, or imagined. (also called source misattribution.) source amnesia, a long with teh misinformation effect, is at the hear of many false memories.