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74 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What does the cardiovascular system do?
Nourishes the body by transporting nutrients and oxygen to the cells. Carbon dioxide and other waste products are removed.
What organs are included in the cardiovascular system?
2)blood vessels
Name the other system that operates in conjunction with the cardiovascular system.
lymphatic system
What is the main function of the lymbhatic system?
The removal of excess tissue fluid.
Where are lymph vessels found?
throughout the body
Name the organs included in the lymphatic system.
1)lymph nodes
3)thymus gland
A hollow, muscular organ, weighing less than a pound, the size of a clenched fist.
Where does the heart rest?
It rests on the central ligaments of the diaphragm muscle.
Where are the heart's main blood vessels located?
On either side are the lungs and above.
Where is the heart located?
In the thorax behind the sternum and in front of the decending aorta and esophagus. On either side are the lungs and above, the main blood vessels.
The walls of the heart are made up of what 3 layers?
1)Epicardium (external layer)
2)Myocardium (muscle layer)
3)Endocardium (innermost layer)
The heart is divided into what 4 chambers?
1)The right and left atrium (known together as atria)are the 2 upper chambers. The atria receive blood.
2)The right and left ventricle are the 2 lower chambers. Ther ventricles are the blood pumping chambers.
What 2 upper chambers of the heart are know together as?
What do the atria do?
Receive blood
What are the blood pumping chambers of the heart?
The right and left ventricles
What are the atria separated by?
By the interatrial septum, which is like a partition.
What are the ventricles separated by?
The interventricular septum
Name the 4 valves that control the flow of blood through the heart.
1)Tricuspid valve
2)Pulmonary valve
3)Mitral valve
4)Aortic valve
Where is the Tricuspid valve located?
Between the right atrium and right ventricle
Where is the Pulmonary valve located at?
Between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
Where is the Mitral valve located at?
Between the left atrium and left ventricle
Where is the Aortic valve located at?
Between the left ventricle and aorta
lymph nodes
Small bodies composed of lymphoid tissue. They are usually grouped together (chains) but could be found as a single node
Whats the purpose of a lymph node?
The nodes act as filters.
Is located in the left abdominal cavity.
Can we live without our Spleen?
Yes. This organ is often damaged due to trauma and has to be removed.
The walls of the heart are made up of what 3 layers?
1)Epicardium (external layer)
2)Myocardium (muscle layer)
3)Endocardium (innermost layer)
Located in the left abdominal cavity. A vertebrate organ, lying behind the stomach, that is basically a collection of lymphoid tissue. Its functions include producing lymphocytes and destroying foreign particles
Thymus gland
Located between the lungs. Plays an inportant role in the development of the immune system of the body
Systemic circulation
Involves blood flow to all parts of the body except the lungs. The oxygen-rich blood flows out of the heart from the left ventricle into arterial circulation. It returns to the heart as oxygen-poor venous blood and flows into the right atrium.
Pulmonary circulation
Involves fthe flow of blood out of the heart from the right ventricle and through the pulmonary arterial system. In the lungs, waste material (carbon dioxide) is exchanged for oxygen. The pulmonary venous system carries the oxygen-rich blood into the left atrium of the heart.
large blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart to all regions of the body.
What color is arteral blood?
bright red
Whats the largest artery?
The aorta
Smaller branches of arteries. They are thinner than arteries and carry the blood to the capillaries
blood pressure
measurement of the amount of pressure exerted against the walls of the blood vessels.
What is the normal blood pressure in adults?
How is the blood pressure measured?
by a sphygmomanometer
Diastolic pressure
This is the 80 (lower level) of the 120/80. Ventricles relax, causing lowest pressure against the arterial walls
Systolic pressure
This is the 120 (higher level) of the 120/80. ventricles contract causing the highest pressure against the arterial walls.
composed of 55% liquid plasma and 45% formed elements.
Where do most blood cells originate?
in the marrow cavity of bones
Name the 4 blood types.
What blood type is known as the universial recipient?
What blood type is known as the universal donor?
microscopic vessels only one epithelial cell in thickness (similar in thickness to a strand of hair). The slower blood flow through capillaries allows time for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste materials between the tissue fluids and the surrounding cells.
Red blood cells containing hemoglobin.
a blood protein that helps transport oxygen throughout the body.
What makes up about 45% of the blood?
RBC's (red blood cells). They live about 120 days but are constantly being replaced, the number of circulating cells remain constant.
The rate and regularity of the heartbeat is determined by the electrical impulses from nerves that stimulate the muscular tissue of the heart.
Name the 2 phases of a heartbeat.
1)diastole (relaxation)
2)systole (contraction)
What is a normal adult heartbeat?
60-80 beats per minute
What is a normal child's heartbeat?
100-120 beats per minute
Heartbeat is affected by what?
By the concentration of potassium and calcium in the body (these 2 must be consistent)
White blood cells that help fight disease.
Name the 5 different leukocytes.
What do neutrophils do?
Fight infections
What do eosinophils do?
Increase in response to allergic conditions
What do basophils do?
Promote inflammatory response
What do monocytes do?
Dispose of dead and dying cells and debris.
What do lymphocytes do?
Produce immunity to protect the body.
Straw-colored fluid that transports nutrients, hormones and waste products.
What is 91% water, remaining 9% clotting proteins?
Rhythmic expansion and contraction of an artery produced by the pressure of the blood moving through the artery
Rh factor
Antigen present int the blood of most people. A person having this is Rh+, someone lacking the antigen is Rh-.
Plasma with the clotting proteins removed.
sinoatrial node
Known as the "natural pacemaker", found in the right atrium of the heart. It establishes the basic rhythm of the heart.
sinus rhythum
normal heart rhythum
Platelets (clotting cell) manufactured in the bone marrow, help in the clotting of blood (coagulation)
Form a low-pressure collecting system to return the oxygen-depleted, waste-filled blood to the heart.
What are the largest veins of the heart?
Superior vena cavae and inferior vena cavae
inferior vena cavae
One of two of the largest veins in the heart. Drains from the lower portion of the body draining into the right atrium of the heart.
superior vena cavae
One of two of the largest veins in the heart. Drains from the upper portion of the body draining into the right atrium of the heart
smaller veins