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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The powerhouse of the cell
Mitochondria
control center of cell
nucleus
During DNA replication, adenine always pairs with
Thymine
During DNA replication, cytosine always pairs with
Guanine
The stage of respiration that releases most of the energy in glucose occurs in the
Mitochondria
During this process, glucose is broken down, releasing energy.
Respiration
During this process, the cell uses the energy in sunlight to make food.
Photosynthesis
The energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen is called this
Fermentation
In this stage of the cell cycle the cell’s nucleus divides into two new nuclei.
Mitosis
This is a disease in which cells grow and divide uncontrollably.
Cancer
A mass of abnormal cells.
Tumor
This captures energy from sunlight during photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll
Carbon dioxide enters plants through this.
Stomata
During what stage of the cell cycle does replication occur?
Interphase
What is copied during replication?
The cell's DNA
Identical strands of chromosomes
Chromatids
The stage of the cell cycle that follows mitosis is called this.
Cytokinesis
This controls what enters and leaves the cell
Cell membrane
This organelle converts energy from food molecules into energy the cell can use.
Mitochondria
All organic compounds contain this element.
Carbon
Most chemical reactions in cells require these molecules.
Water
Refers to the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration?
Diffusion
Refers to the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane.
Osmosis
Refers to the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using the cell’s energy.
Passive Transport
Refers to the movement of materials through a cell membrane by using the cell’s energy.
Active Transport
These speed up chemical reactions.
Enzymes
Protects and supports plant cells.
Cell wall
Which organelles store food and other materials needed by the cell?
Vacuole
Which organelles release chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones?
Lysosomes
Sugar molecules can combine with one another to form large molecules called this.
Startches
When two or more elements combine chemically, they form this.
Compounds
In Mendel’s experiments, what proportion of the plants in the F2 generation had a trait that had been absent in the F1 generation?
One forth
Scientists call an organism that has two different alleles for a trait this.
Hybrid
This shows all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross
Punnett Square
If a homozygous black guinea pig (BB) is crossed with a homozygous white guinea pig (bb), what is the probability that an offspring will have black fur?
100%
An organism’s physical appearance
Phenotype
Different forms of a gene
Alleles
Genetic makeup or allele combination
Genotype
Two identical alleles for a trait
Homozygous
Two different alleles for a trait
Heterozygous
A change in an organism’s surroundings that causes it to react
Stimulus
Maintaining stable internal conditions
Homeostasis
The scientific study of how living things are classified
Taxonomy
Broadest classification level
Domain
The source of energy for most autotrophs is
Sun
An organism that makes its own food is called
Autotroph
The products of respiration are energy, carbon dioxide, and
Water
A change in DNA is called
Mutation
The most common treatments for cancer include drugs, surgery, and
Radiation
A form of treatment in which drugs destroy cancer cells is called
Chemotherapy
During cytokinesis in plant cells, this forms across the middle of the cell.
Cell plate
These are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
Cells
Produce proteins in cells
Ribosomes
Sugars and starches are examples of organic compounds known as this.
Carbohydrates
DNA and RNA belong to the group of organic compounds known as
Nucleic Acids
These small molecules make up proteins.
Amino Acids
Offspring of many generations of organisms that have the same trait.
Purebred
In a cross between two hybrid Tt pea plants, this percent of the offspring will be Tt.
50%
Alleles that are neither dominant nor recessive produce an inheritance pattern known as
Codominance
The process of grouping things based on similarities is called
Classification
The first word in an organism’s scientific name
Genus
10 cm equals how many mm
100 mm
412 km equals how many m?
412,000 m
11 mm equals how many cm?
1.1 cm
0.23 L equals how many mL?
230 mL
0.0005 kg equals how many cg?
50 cg
0 L equals how many mL?
0 mL
41 g equals how many cg?
4100 cg
1 L equals how many mL?
1000 mL
Unscramble the term

smtiios
mitosis
Unscramble the term

iessomi
meiosis
2.2 kg equals how many g?
2200 g
Anaphase
Name the stage of mitosis
Metaphase
Name the stage of mitosis
Structure that holds two chromatids together
Centromere
A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur
Probability
This theory states that genes are carried from parents to offspring on chromosomes.
Chromosome theory of inheritance
He discovered that grasshopper sex cells have half the number of chromosomes found in the body cells.
Sutton
Chromosome pairs separate and are distributed into new sex cells during this process.
Meiosis
Proteins are made of these
Amino Acids
During protein synthesis this copies the coded message from the DNA and carries it into the cytoplasm
Messenger RNA
A term that refers to physical characteristics that are studied in genetics
Traits
During protein synthesis this will carry amino acids and add them to the growing protein
Transfer RNA
This is where protein synthesis occurs in the cell
Cytoplasm
Which nitrogen base in RNA is NOT part of DNA?
Uracil
These make up chromosomes
Genes
The substitution of one base for another during DNA replication is an example of
A mutation
Codominance or Incomplete Dominance

Blood type
Codominance
If a mother has type A blood and the father has type B blood this will be the child's blood type.
Type AB
If a mother has type A blood and the father has type O blood this will be the child's blood type.
Type A
Blood type that is the Universal Donor
Type O
Blood type that is the Universal Acceptor
Type AB
Codominance or Incomplete Dominance

A white flower and a red flower produce pink flowers
Incomplete dominance
DNA stands for this
Deoxyribonucleic acid
RNA stand for this
Ribonucleic Acid
Unscramble the word

eeldnm
Mendel
Unscramble the word

ooorcmmhse
Chromosome
Male sex cell
Sperm
Female sex cell
Egg
The order of nitrogen bases along a gene
Genetic Code