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45 Cards in this Set

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Action potential
A large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or a nerve fiber.
Epiphysis
The end of a long bone attached to a shaft
Haversian Canal

Core of each osteon
The canal in the center of each osteon that contains minute blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the need of the osteocytes.
Lamella
A layer in the bone matrix in an osteon of compact bone.
Osteoclasts
Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix
Osteoblasts
Bone forming cells
Form bone
Bone remodeling
Process involving bone formation and destruction (eating) in response to hormonal and mechanical factors.
Osteoid
Unmineralized bone matrix
Ground substance and collagen fibers which is made and secreted by osteoblasts.
Epiphyseal plate
Plate of hyaline cartilage at the junction of the diaphysis and epipysis that provides for growth in length of a long bone.
diaphysis
Elongated shaft of a long bone.
Lacunae

Osteocyctes (Mature bone cells) Live here
A small space, cavity, or depression;lacunae in bone or cartilage are filled with cells- Bone osteons in lacunae
Canaliculus

connect lacunae to eachother and to the central canal
Extremely small tubular passage or channel in which nutrients reach the osteocytes of spongy bone by diffusing through the canliculi from capillaries in the endosteum surrounding the trabeculae.
Spongy bone
Made of Trabeculae
No osteons present here
Compact bone
Structural unit of compact bone is called the osteon or Haversian system. Bone salts and collagen fibers.
Cells responsible for bone growth as part of reabsorption are called
Osteoclasts
Calcitonin
Hormone released by the thyroid that promotes a decrease in calcium levels in the blood.
Osteon
System of interconnecting canals in the structure of adult compact bone, unit of bone;also called Haversian system.
Osteogenesis
The process of bone formation; also called ossification.
Adrenergic
Nerve fibers that release norepinephrine.
Cholergenic
Nerve endings that upon stimulation release acetylcholine
acetycholine (ACh)

Nicotinic
Chemical transmitter substance released by some nerve endings.
Nicotinic receptors
Acetylcholine binding receptors of all autonomic ganglionic neurons and skeletal muscle neuromuscular junctions; named for activation by nicotine.
Muscarinic Receptors

Reciprical Inhibition
Acetylcholine-binding receptors of the autonomuc nervous system's target organs. Named for activation by the mushroom poison muscarine.
Norepinephrine (NE)

Activates sympathetic nervous system
A catecholamine neuroransmitter and adrenal medullary hormone, associated with sympathetic nervous system activation
Sympathetic Division of the Autonomic nervous system

Uses endocrine system of secreting hormones
Prepares the body for activity or to cope with some stressor (danger excitement, etc.) the Fight, fright, and flight subdivision
Parasympathetic Divison of the Autonomic Nervous system

Uses endocrine system of internal organs that secrete the hormones for sympathetic system
Oversees digesiton, elimination, and glandular function; the resting and digesting subdivision
Reticular activating system (RAS)
Diffuse brain stem neural network that receives a wide variety of sensory input and maintains wakefuleness of the cerebral cortex.
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
Stage of sleep in which rapid eye movements, and alert EEG (Graphic record of the electrical activity of nerve cells in the brain) pattern, and dreaming occur.
Muscle twitch
The response of a muscle to a single brief threshold stimulus.
Muscle Tone
Low levels of contractile activity in relaxed muscle; keeps the muscle health and ready to act.
Isometric contrzaction
contraction in which the muscle does not shorten (the load is too heavy) but its internal tension increases.
Isotonic contraction
contraction in which muscle tension remains costant at a given joint angle and load, and the muscle shortens.
Creatine phosphate (CP)

Sprinter uses this type of energy. 100 meter dash
Intermediate fatigue
Serves as an alternate energy source for muscle tissue.
First 10 seconds.

Oxygen use: NOne
1 ATP per CP, creatine
Glycolysis

Waiting for oxygen
30-40 seconds

Short-term bursts of energy
hitting a baseball
Fast glycolic Fibers- Fast fatigue
Breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid- and anaerobic process.

Oxygen use: None
2 ATP per glucose
Aerobic respiration

Marathon runner
Muscles have a high percentage of SLOW oxidative fibers 80%
Slow fatigue
Energy source: Glucose, pyruvic acid, fatty acids, amino acids.

Oxygen use: Required
38 ATP pre glucose, CO2 H2O
Muscle fatigue

Peripheral mechanism.
Physiological inability to contract even though the muscle still may be receiveing stimuli. Different from central fatigue in which flesh is still able to perforn but we feel tired.
Temporal Summation (time)
Synapse is stimulated a second time BEFORE the initial EPSP dies away= temporal summation = The axon's threshold is reached= tis causes an Action Potential
One or more presynaptic neurons transmit impulses in rapid fire order and bursts of neurotransmitter are released in a quick succession. Triggers over and over quickly.
Chemical Gated Channels
also called ligand-gated channels
Open when the appropriate chemical(usually neurotransmitter)binds.
ex. Neurotransmitter chemical attaches to receptor opens the Sodium/ Potassium Ion channel.
Voltage gated ion channel
Open in response to changes in the membrane potential.
ex. in depolarization membrane potential becomes less negative as AP moves down membrane (happens in waves).
Mechanically gated channels
Open in response to to physical deformation of the receptor.
ex. Sensory receptors for touch and pressure.
Blood-brain-barrier
Ependymal cells: Make a permeable barrier btwn cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord.
Mechanism that inhibits passage of materials from the blood into brain tissues, reflects relative impermeability of brain capillaries.
Accesory nerve cells
Considered an accessory part of the vagus nerve, this nerve was formerly called the spinal accessorty nerve.
Regulation of temperature
Hypothalimus initiates cooling(sweating) or heat generating mechanisms(shivering)as needed to maintain a relatively constant body temperature.
Function of the hypothalimus. Hypothalamic neurons monitor blood temperature and receive impute from other thermoreceptors in the brain and body periphery.
Respiration Control
Rate
Depth
Rythm
Medulla Oblongata
Respiratory Centers- control the rate and depth of breathing and (with the pons centers) maintain respiratory rhythm.
Concussion
DEF: Alteration in brain function; usually temporary, following a blow to the head. May cause dizziness, or loss of consciousness. More serious concussions can cause bruising of the brain and permanent neurological damage, called a contusion.