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45 Cards in this Set

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The period in European history between the end of the Roman Empire to the beginning of the modern era;the Middle Ages from around A.D.500 to A.D. 1500
Middle Ages
An economic and political system of Europe in the Middle Ages
feudalism
An important noble in the Middle Ages
lord
In the Middle Ages, a large piece of land granted by a king to a lord in exchange for his loyalty
fief
A person who, during the Middle Ages promised to fight for when he was needed by his lord in exchange for land
vassal
A person who was bound to live and work on the land of a noble
serf
A large self-sufficient farming estate where nobles and serfs lived and worked
manor
A son of a noble who was a trained soldier and military service in exchange for the right to own land
knight
A religious community in which monks live simple lives of work and prayer
monastery
A relious community in which nuns lead simple lives of work and prayer
convent
A religious woman who lives in a convent and worships gods with other nuns
nun
A religious man who lives in a monastery and worships gods with other monks
monk
According to Roman Catholic teachingss a man or woman believed to be especially holy
saint
A large and elaborate christian church; many of the greatest cathedrals were built during the Middle Ages in Europe
cathedral
A journey to a holy place for a religious purpose
pilgrimage
A series of "holy wars" in the Middle Ages in which European Christians attempted to recapture the Holy Land(Palestine)from Muslims
Crusades
The buying and selling of goods
commerce
An organization of people such as weavers and shoemakers, who practiced the same craft, formed to set standards and promote the interests of the craft
guild
A person who lived and worked, without pay, with a master craftsmen in order to learn a trade
apprentice
A person in the Middle Ages who had completed his apprenticeship and was payed for his work
journeyman
A formal document setting forth the goals and principles of an organization
charter
A document drawn up by English nobles in 1215 that spelled out certain rights and limted the king's power
Magna Carta
A period of cultural and artistic flowering in Europe that began in Italy around 1350 and eventually spread throughout Europe
Renaissance
The literature of ancient Greece and Rome
classics
A person who uses his or her money or influence to support another person such as an artist or a writer
patron
1304-1374 Italian poet and scholar whoes interest in ancient literature helped spark the Renaissance
Petrarch
1449-1492 Renaissance patron of the arts
Lorenzo de Medici
1452-1519 Renaissance painter and inventor from Italy; creator of the Mona Lisa
Leonardo Da Vinci
1475-1564 Italian Renaissance artist;created the Pieta and the paintings of the Sistine Chapel
Michelangelo
The study of the planets, stars, and other heavenly bodies
astronomy
1642-1727 Englishmen who discovered the law of gravity; found final proof of the heliocentric theory
Isaac Newton
1563-1642 Italian scientist who used a telescope to prove that the heliocentric theory was correct
Galileo
1473-1543 Polish astronomer whose observations led him to develop the heliocentric theory
Copernicus
Based on Copernicus's ideas, the idea that the earth and other planets moved around the sun
heliocentric theory
An instrument for making distant objects, such as heavenly bodies appear nearer and larger
telescope
The force that causes to be pulled toward the center of the earth
gravity
A device showing the direction of the magnetic north that is used to find geographical direction
compass
A sailing vessel developed in Europe which because of its large size and triangular sails, allowed Europeans to safely sail greater distances
caravel
1254-1324 Italian merchant who journeyed to China
Marco Polo
1215-1294 Ruler of the Mongol Empire from 1260-1294
Kublai Khan
1394-1460 Prince of Portugal; founded a school for sailors
Henry the Navigator
1450-1500 The first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa
Bartholomeu Dias
1469-1542 Portuguese navigator who discovered an all-water route to the Indies
Vasco Da Gama
1446-1506 Italian explorer who arrived in the Americas in 1492
Christopher Columbus
The idea that the earth was the center of the universe and that the sun, stars, and planets revolved around the earth
geocentric theory