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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hospital Acquired Infections
-enteric bacteria: gram (-) rods
-Pseudomonas sp.: gram (-) rods that can become very resistant
-fungal: occurs in immunocompromised patient or when antibiotic knock out NF
-mycoplasma: passev via human to human contact
-Staphylococcus sp.: can become very resistant
Rare but Notable Infections
-Bacillus anthracis: anthraz
-Bordettal pertussis: whooping cough: vaccine avaliable
-Brucella sp.: zoones; occurs in cattle ranchers
-Francisella sp.: zoones; sylvetic plague & occurs in hunters
-Listeria monocytogenes: causes abortion; reason for milk recalls
-Shigella sp.: dysentary
-Salmonella sp.: food poisoning
-Vibrio sp.: cholera (marine)
-Yersinia sp.: Black Plague
Streptococcus pneumoniae
-gram (+) cocci, chains, or diplococci
-risk factors: seasonal (winter), chronic illness, aging, HIV, transplantation
-human to human transmission
-NF of nasopharnyx
-results in pneumonia, otits media, & meningitis
-vaccine avaliable
-increase resistance over past years
-ofter polysacchride capsule enables it to escape immune survellence
Streptococcus sp.
-gram (+) cocci
-serogroups: A, B, C, D, G
virulence factors: hyaluronic capsules evades immune system, streptolysins & hyaluroniase promotes spread, streptokinase acts as a clot buster, exotoxins are carried on bacteriophage, superantigen
-post infection complications: scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis, can damage heart valves
-B: child-birth fever, UTI
-D: UTI (NF of gut)
-common infections: strep throat, otitis media, retropharyngeal abscesses, wounds, bone & join infections, necrotizing fascilitis, toxic shock syndrome
Enterococcus sp.
-NF of gut
-separate genus from Streptococcus sp. but are very similar immunologically to D streptococci
-infections: UTI, septicemias, wounds, abscesses
-rapidly develops antibiotic resistance
Staphylococci sp.
-gram (+) cocci
-NF of skin & nose
-S. auerus is more pathogenic then other staphs
-serious infections: normal body defenses must be breached (wound, illness)
-virulence: vascular thrombosis lead to walling off of infection, lipases, proteases, hyaluronidase, dnase, penicillinase, exotoxins, exofoliatin- epidermolysis, enterotoxins
-results: wound,gastroenteritis, sepsis, stys
-facultative anaerobes
-gram (-) rods
-NF of gut
-causes UTI
E. coli
enteric pathogen that causes gastroenteritis
Campylobacter sp.
-gram (-) rods
-most common cause of gastroenteritis in developed countries; severe watery diarrhea that may or may not contain blodd (C. jejuni)
-transmitted via ingestion, animal contact, or contaminated water
-usually self limiting but very serious case must be treated
Salmonella sp.
-typhoid: causes fever but less comon due to better hygiene
-non-typhoid: more common in US & 2nd most common; self limiting
-trasmission: food, water, pets, illict drug use
-virulence: taken up by M cells the gut and M cells cannot regenerate until bacteria is erradicated, cytotoxic
-takes many organisms to make you sick & not just a few
Shigella sp.
-takes very few organisms to cause illness
-watery diarrhea
-most common in small children and more dangerous because of dehydration
-transmission: human to human, food, water
-virulence: shigatoxin (exotoxin), gut epithelium sheds, can ulcerate colon
Yersinia sp.
-Y. enterocolitica is cause of gastroenteritis usually via food contamination
-cause Black Plague
Vibrio sp.
-cholera (rare in US)
-V. parahemolyticus: gastroenteritis (found esp. in Gulf Coast Region)
-usually self limiting
Helicobacter pylori
-gram (-) rods
-attach & persists in stomach to cause ulcers
-causes increase with age as immune system breaks down
Hemophilus sp.
-gram (-) rods
-H. influenzae is most common
-may or may not have polysaccharide capsule
-6 serotypes & B is the most pathogenic
-vaccine avaliable
-NF of nose
-infections: otitis media, pneumonia, epiglottitis, meningitis
-virulence: lipopolysaccharide capsule, endotoxin, protease cleaves IgA
-risks: very young and very old, in groups, chronic illness (COPD & asthma)
Moraxella sp.
-human to human transmission
-3rd most common cause of otitis media
-causes penumonia in those who are chronically ill & immunocompromised
Pseudomonas sp.
-gram (-) rod
-strict aerobe
-found in environment: water, soil, plants
-cannot bind to intact skin thus skin must be abraded to get an infection
-infections: swimmer's ear (outer ear infection), cystic fibrosis patients, hospital acquired infections (resistant)
Hospital Acquired Pseudomonas
-opportunistic pathogen
-breaches host defense: catheters, trach tubes, wound drain, BURN patients, mechanical ventolation (45-85% mortality)
-attached poorly to healthy intact cells
-rapidly converts to antibiotic resistant strains thum must wisely use antibiotics
Clostridial disease
-gram (+) rod
-spore forming rods
-obligate anaerobe
-causes botulism, tetanus, gangrene
-C. perfingens: NF of gut that can cause gangrene if one gets a wound
-C. difficile: causes enterocitis
Bacillus sp.
-gram (+) rod
-spore forming rod
-obligate aerobe
-causes anthrax via cutaneous or inhalation transmission (bioterrorism or occupational  livestock)
Corynebacterium sp.
-gram (+) rods
-NF (most)
-diphteria which is carried by a plasmid; vaccine avaliable
-no spores
Neisseria gonorrhea
-reportable disease
-gram (-) diplococci
-males: urethral discharge, dysuria
-females: prulent discharge, vaginitis
-gram stain: intracellular, red, diplocci
Neisseria meningiditis
-serotype C is the most common
-present in freshman dorms
-40% of healthy population carries in nose
-spread by aerosl droplets
-serious, deadly meningitis with or without sepsis
-treatment should begin before lab diagnosis is complete
-diagnosis: lumbar puncture, WBC with intracellular diplococci
-close relations are also treated to stem epidemic
-vaccine avaliable & encouraged