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42 Cards in this Set

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Acyclovir
A synthetic purine analog that blocks DNA synthesis in certain viruses particularly the herpes simplex virus
Aminoglycosides
a complex group of drugs derived from soil actinomycetes that impairs ribosome’s function and has antibiotic potential, ex streptomycin
antibiotics
a chemical substances from one microorganism that can inhibit or kill another microbe even in minute amounts
beta-Lactamase
An enzyme secreted by certain bacteria that cleaves the beta-lactam ring of penicillin and cephalosporin and thus provides for resistance against the antibiotic
Cephalosporin’s
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics isolated from the fungus cephalosporin
Competitively inhibiting
Control process that relies on the ability of metabolic analogs to control microbial growth by successfully competing w/ a necessary enzyme to halt the growth of bacterial cells
Metabolic analog
Enzyme that mimics the natural substrate of an enzyme and vies for its active site
Narrow spectrum
Denotes drugs that are selective and limited in their effect. for ex they inhibit either gram neg or gram pos bacteria, but not both
Polymyxin
A mixture of antibiotic polypeptides from Bacillus polymyxa that are particularly effective against gram neg bacteria.
Resistance factors
Plasmids, typically shared among bacteria by conjugation, that provide resistance to the effects of antibiotics
Selectively Toxic
property of an antimicrobial agent to be highly toxic against its target microbe while being far less toxic to other cells, particularly those of the host organism
Semi synthetic
Drugs which, after being naturally produced by bacteria, fungi or other living sources, are chemically modified in the laboratory
Tetracycline’s
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics w/ a complex 4-ring structure
Sulfonamides
Antimicrobial drugs that interfere with the essential metabolic process of bacteria and some fungi
Broad Spectrum
Antimicrobials effective against a wide variety of microbial types. For ex a drug effective against both gram-pos and gram neg bacteria
Prophylaxis
use of a drug to prevent imminent infection of a person at risk
Antibiotics
Naturally occurring antimicrobials.
Selective toxicity
Drugs that specifically target microbial processes, and not the human host cellular processes. Ideal drug for what you want to kill
Cell Wall Synthesis
Bactericidal
Nucleic acid synthesis
Chloroquine – binds and cross-links the double helix.
Protein Synthesis
Aminoglycosides
Cell Membrane
Polymyxins
Folic Acid Synthesis
Sulfonamides (sulfa drug) and trimethoprim
Penicillin
-Penicillin chrysogenum
Penicillin continued
-Resistance – if bacteria contain penicillinases
Cephalosporin
-Cephalosporium acremonium (mold)
Cephalosporin, continued
-Resistant to most penicillinases
Aminoglycosides
-Streptomyces and Micromonospora
Tetracycline
-Streptomyces
Chloramphenicol
-Streptomyces
Erythromycin
-Streptomyces
Sulfanomides (Sulfa drugs)
-Synthetic drug
Polyenes
-Antifungal
Antiviral
-Limited drugs available
Antimicrobial Resistance
Resistance factors
New Approaches
Increase drug resistance requires new approaches for developing effective antimicrobials
Drug and Host Interactions
Toxicity to organs
Kirby-Bauer Test
Sensitivity test such as the Kirby-Bauer Test can be used to determine the effectiveness of a drug by measuring the zone of inhibition.
MIC minimum inhibitory concentration
The lower the MIC, the more effective the drug is toward combating the bacterium.
E-Test
It determines the minimum amount of drug to use in the correct amount of time
Zone of inhibition
the area around the drop of antibiotic
Spectrum
What range does this drug work