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109 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the process by which microbes gain a more stable foothold at the portal of entry
Asymptomatic Carriers
A person with an inapparent infection who shows no symtoms of being infected yet is able to pass the disease agent on to others
Blood Cells
Cellular components of the blood consisting of red blood cells, primarily responsile for the transport of o2 and co2 and white blood cells primarily responsible for host defense and immune reactions
Communicable, transmissible by direct contact w/ infected people and their fresh secretions or excretions
Droplet Nuclei
Drawn deep into the air passages. the dried residue of fine droplets produced by mucus and saliva sprayed while sneezing & coughing. Can be carried by air currents. large enough(<5mm) to bear a single bacterium but small enough to remain airborn for a long time.
Originating or produced w/in an organism or one of its parts
A bacterial toxin that is not ordinarily released. Composed of phopholipid-polysaccaride complex that is an integral part of gram neg bacterial cell walls. Endotoxins can cause sever shock & fever
A sudden & simultaneous ourbreak or increase in the number of cases of disease in a community
An extracellular enzyme in bacteria, fungi protozoa and worms that secrete exoenzymes that break down and inflict damage on tissues
Originating outside the body
Virtually an inanimate object an infected indiviual has contact with that can serve as a vehicle for the spread of a disease
The process by which the various types of blood cells are formed, such as in the bone marrow
An acquired resistance to an infectious agent due to prior contact w/ that agent
The study of the system of body defenses that protect against infection
In epidemiology, the number of new cases of a disease occuring during a period
Infectiouse of Diseases
The state of damage or toxicity in the body caused by an infectious agent
Koch's Postulates
A procedure to establish the specific cause of disease. In all cases of infection: Agent must be fond; innoculations of a pure culture must reproduce the same disease in animals; agent must again be present in experimental animals; a pure culture must again be obtained
White cells. The primary infection - fighting blood cells
Any trait or factor of a cell, virus, or molecule that makes it distince and recognizable ex. a genetic marker
A diseased condition
Total number of deaths in a population attributable to a particular disease
Nosocomial Infection
An infection not present upon admission to a hospital but incurred while being treated there.
Opportunistic Pathogen
An infection, ordinarily non-pathogenic or weakly pathogenic microbes that cause disease primarily in an immunologically comprised host
A disease affliciting an increase proportion of the population over a wide geographic area (often worldwide)
Passive Carriers
Person who mechanically transfers a pathogen w/o ever being infected by it. ex a health care worker who doesn't wash his/her hands adequately between patients
the capacity of microbes to cause disease
Any agent (usually a virus, bacterium, fungus, Portozoan, or helminth) that causes disease
The carrier fluid element of blood
Portal of Entry
Route of entry for an infectious agent, typically a cutaneous or membraneous route
Portal of Exit
Route through which a pathogen departs from the host organism
The total number of cases of a disease in a certain area and time period
In disease communication the natural host or habitat of a pathogen
Resident Flora
The deeper, more stable microflora that inhibit the skin and exposed mucous membranes, as opposed to the sperficial variable, transient population
Reticuloendothelial System
AKA as the mononuclear phagocyte system it pertains to a network of fibers and phagocytic cells Macrophages) that permeates the tissues of all organs. ex Kupffer cells in liver sinusoids, alveolar phagocytes in the lung, microglia in nervous tissue
A morbid complication that follows a disease also in the form of long-term or permanent damge to tissues or organs. ie menigitis can result in deafness
Description of a disease which exhibits new cases at irregular intervals in unpredictable geographic locales
Stem Cells
Pluripotent, undifferentiated cells
The collection of signs and symptoms that, taken together, paint a portrait of the disease
The tendency for a pathogen to produce toxins. It is an important factor in bacterial virulence
Specific chemical product of microbes, plants, and some animals that is poisonous to other organisms
True Pathogen
A microbe capable of causing infection and disease in healthy persons w/normal immune defenses
An animal that transmits infectious agents from one host to another, usually a biting or piercing arthropod like a tic, mosquito, or fly. Genetic element such as: a plasmid or bacteriophage used to introduce genetic material into a cloning host during recomibinant DNA
inanimate material (solid object, liquid or air) that serves as a transmission agent for pathogens
In infection, the relative capacity of a pathogen to invade and harm host cells
virulence Factors
A microbes structure or capabilties that allow it to establish itself in a host and cause damage
Whole Blood
A liquid connective tissue consisting of blood cells suspended in plasma
(red blood cells) Blood cells involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
formed elements in the blood which develop when megakarocytes disintegrate. Platelets are involved in hemostasis and blood clotting
A mature leukocyte that contains noticeable granules in a Wright Stain, ex neutorphils, eosinophils, and basophils
A mature granulocyte present in peripheral circulation, exhibiting a multilobular nucleau and numerous cytoplasmic granules that retain a neutral stain. The neutrophil is an active phagocytic cell in bacterial infection
A leukocte whose cytoplasmic granules readily stain w/ red eosin dye
White blood cell stains w/basic
One form of leukocyte, (white blood cells) having globular, non-lobed nuclei and lacking priminent cytoplasmic granules
A large mononuclear leikocyte normally found in the lynph nodes, connective tissue. This type of cell makes up 3 to 7% of circulating leukocytes
The 2nd most common form of white blood cells
B cells
B lymphocyte A white blood cell that gives rise to plasma cells and antibodies
Humoral immunity
Protective molecules (mostly Lymphocytes) carried in the fluids of the body
T Cells
T Lymphocyte A white Blood cell that is processed in the thymus gland and is involed in cell-mediated immunity
Cell-mediated immunity
Type of immune responses brought about by T-cells, such as cytotoxic and helper effects
The tendency of organisms to move in response to a chemical gradient (torward an attractant or to avoid adverse stimuli)
The migration of intact blood cells between endothelial cells of a blood vessel such as a venule
A type of endocytosis in which the cell membrane actively engulfs large particles or cells into vesicles
Lymphatic System
A system of vessels and organs that serve as sites for developement of immune cells and immune reactions. It includes the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and GA LT
Butterfly-shaped organ near the tip of the sternum that is the site of the T-cells maturation
Chemical Mediators
Small molecules that are released during inflamation and specific immune reactions that allow communication between the cells of the immune system and facilitate surveillance, recognition and attack
A chemical substance produced by white blood cells and tissue cells that regulates development, inflammation, and immunity
The accumulation of excess fluid in cells, tissues, or serous cavaties. Also called swelling
Naturally occuring poly-peptides produced by fibroblasts and lymphocytes that can block viral replication and regulate a variety of immune reactions
A cytoplasmic organelle containing lysozyme and other hydrolytic enzymes
Endemic disease ?
A native disease that prevails continuously in a geographic region
A white blood cell derived from a monocyte that leaves the circulation and enters tissue, these cells are important in non-specific phagocytosis and in regulating, stimulating and cleaning up after immune responses
Acquire resident flora
The human body supports a wide range of habitats. * temperature, pH, nutrient, oxygen tension.
-wide range of microbes can inhabit
-Resident flora or microflora- microbes that inhabit but do not harm the host
Acquire resident flora
-Beneficial outcome- removed by immune system-microbial antagonism.
Adverse effects- Escape immune system, Multiply and disrupt tissue.
Progress of an Infection
-Portals of Entry
-Surviving host defenses
-Causing disease
-Process of infections and disease
-Portals of exit
Innoculum Size
Infectious size- Minumum number of bacteria required to cause disease. Low ID= high virulence
Adhesion- binding between specific molecules on both the host and pathogen.
Structures-capsules, pili or fimbriae, hooks(parasites)
specific chemical product of microbes, plants, and some animals that is poisonous to other organisms.
The power to produce toxins
genetically controlled characteristic of many species and is responsible for the adverse effects of a variety of dieases.
toxemia (tetanus & diphtheria)
toxinoses in which the toxin is spread by the blood from the site of infection.
intoxifications (botulism)
Toxinoses caused by ingestion of toxins
A toxin molecule secreted by a living bacterial cell in the infected tissues
A toxin that is not secreted but is released only after the cell is damaged or lysed
localized infection
In the simplest situation, the microbe enters the body and remains confined to a specific tissue, ie boils warts
Systemic infection
When an infection spreads to several sites and tissue fluids, usually in the bloodstream.
Focal infection
exists when the infectious agent breaks loose from a local infection and is carried into other tissues. ie TB
Mixed infection
An infection where several agents establish themselves simultaneously at the infection site
in other mixed infections, one microbe creates an environment that enables another microbe to invade ie gas gangrene, wound infections. dental caries and human bite infections
primary - secondary infection
is when an intial infection is complicated by another infection caused by a different chicken pox which becomes staphylococcus aureus from scratching the pox
Acute infections
infections that come on rapidly, with severe but short-lived effects
chronic infections
infections progress and persist over a long period of time
is any objective evidence of disease as noted by an observer
is the subjective evidence of diease as sensed by the patient
when a disease can be identified or defined by a certain complex of signs and symptoms
Signs and Symptoms of inflammation
1 Edema, 2 granulomas, 3 abscesses, 4 lymphadenitis, 5 lesions
1 the accumulation of fluid in an afflicted tissue, 2&3 walled-off collections of inflammatory cells and microbes in the tissues 4 swollen lymph nodes
Signs of Infection in the Blood 1Leukocytosis 2 leukopenia 3 septicemia 4 bacteremia or viremia
1 is an increase in the level of WBC 2 is a decrease in the level of WBC 3 microorganisms are multiplying in the blood and are present in large numbers 4 microbes are present in the blood but are not necessarily multiplying
Infections that go unnoticed = Asymptomatic, subclinical
an infection in the body w/ no noticeable symptoms even though the microbe is active in the host tissue
The Portal of Exit
the pathogen is shed or released from the body through secretion, excretion, discharge, or sloughed tissue
The persistance of Microbes & Pathologic Conditions
After the initial symptoms in certain infectious diseases, the infectious agent retreats into a dormant state. and periodically become active again. ie hep b, herpes, aids. and persist in the host for long periods
involves the study of the frequency and distribution of disease and other health-related factors in defined human populations
some dieases are tracked by public health authorities,
mortality rate
which measures the total number of deaths in a population due to a certain disease
epidemic / pandemic
epidemic exists when an increasing trend is observed in a particular population. The spread of an epidemic across continents is pandemic
Reservoirs: Where Pathogens Persist .
1 Reservoir
2 Source
1 The primary habitat in the natural world from which a patogen originates.
2 Which is the individual or object from which an infection is actually acquired
Living Reservoirs
1 Carrier
2 Asymptomatic Carriers
3 Passive Carrier
1 an individual who inconspicuously shelters a pathogen and spreads it to others w/o any notice
2 carriers are infected, but show no symptoms (gonorrhea/genital warts)
3 A medical or dental who carries infection from 1 patient to another by handling materials that are heavily contaminated.
Animals as Reservoirs and Sources
1 vector
2 biological vector
3 mechanical vector
4 zoonosis
1 a live animal that transmits an infectious agent from on host to another
2 actively participates in a pathogen's life cycle, serving as a site in which it can multiply, mosquito
3 not part to the life cycle of an infectious agent and merely transports it without being infected, housefly, pathogens on their feet
4 an infection indigenous to animals but naturally transmissable to humans
2 non-communicable
1 When an infected host can trasmit the infectious agent to another host and establish infection in that host
2 infectious disease does not arise through transmission of the infectious agent from host to host
Universal precautions
a Stringent set of guidelines based on the assumptions that all patient specimens could harbor infectious agents and so must be treated with the same degree of care
Substance that are toxic to white blood cells