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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Mutualism
Mutually beneficial to both parties. (Exp: Human living with normal flora)
Define Commensalism
Two parties living together, but doesn't hurt or help each other
Define Parasitism
When one party is doing harm to the other party
Define Resident flora
Flora that are with a person throughout life
Define Transient flora
Flora remain in the body for only a few hours, days or months before disappearing
Define Virulence
How well something is able to cause disease
Factors of virulence
- Adhesion factors
- Extracellular enzymes
- Toxins
- Antiphagocytic factors
(help with process of abating immune system)
Name and describe the 5 stages of an infectious disease
1. Incubation period - no signs or symptoms
2. Prodromal period - vauge, general symptoms
3. Illness - most severe signs and symptoms
4. Decline - declining signs and symptoms
5. Convalescence - no signs or symptoms
Define Acute
Rapid onset and rapid resolution
Define Chronic
Slow onset and lasts a long time
Define Subacute
Not realize sick (rapid onset and rapid resolution, however not full onset of sickness ... CAN SPREAD)
Define Latent
You get infected by bacterial virus it hides out for a long time then comes out and you have the disease. Can transmit even when latent. (Exp: herpes)
Define Communicable
Readily spread from one person to the next
List the 3 major categories of resvoirs of infection
1. animal
2. human carriers (Exp: typhoid Mary)
3. Non living (Exp: bodies of water)
What is a zoonotic disease? How are they acquired?
A disease in animals passed to humans.
Acquired by:
1. Direct contact (Exp: Bird flu)
2. Eating animals (Exp: Mad cow)
3. Bloodsucking anthropds (Exp: Lyme disease, West Nile)
Name 3 kinds of structures used by microorganisms for attachment
1. Specialized structures (Exp: Parasitic worms)
2. Attachment proteins (viruses)
3. Adhesions (Exp: pili, capsule, anything allowing sticking on bacteria)
How does a microorganism's physiology influence its virulence
Bacterial capsules prevent:
1. Recognition
2. Attraction
3. Phagocytosis

Antiphagotic chemicals:
1. Prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion
2. Leukocidins - destroy WBC
How do bacterial capsules allow bacteria to evade phagocytosis
By preventing recognition and attachment
Describe 2 other methods that bacteria use that evade phagocytosis
1. Prevent phagosome-lysosome fusion
2. Leukocidins
Name the 4 main routes of transmission of infectious diseases
1. Contact: Direct, Indirect, Droplet
2. Vehicle: Airborne, Waterborne, Foodborne
3. Vector: Mechanical (on insect bodies); Biological (lice, mosquitos and ticks)
List 3 situations in which opportunistic pathogens may cause infections
1. Immune suppression (HIV+)
2. Changes in the normal micro flora (using antibiotics)
3. Introduction into unusual site in the body (Exp: E. coli from digestive tract gets into urinary tract)
What are extracellular enzymes? Give some examples of extracellular enzymes.
Enzymes that pathogens secrete enabling them to break down structural chemicals in the body and maintain an infection, invade further and avoid body defenses
Hyaluronidase - (hyaluronic "acid") glue that holds animal cells together
Coagulase - coagulates blood proteins
What is a toxin?
Chemicals that either harm tissues or trigger host immune responses that cause damage
Define Endotoxin
Lipid A released by dead Gram-negative bacteria (only released when bacter dies)
Define Exotoxin
They are secreted by bacteria
Name and define 3 major types of extoxins
1. Cytoplasm - kilss cells (exp: blood platelets; bacteria kills RBCs)
2. Neurotoxins - toxins that interfere with signaling between muscles and nerves (Exp: Botchulism and tetnus)
3. Enterotoxins - toxins associated with gastrointestinal diseases. (Common symptoms: dirrehea and vomiting)
Describe the 4 steps involved in Koch's postulates
1. Suspected germ must be present in every case of the disease.
2. Germ must be isolated and grown in pure culture.
3. The cultured germ must cause the disease when it is innoculated into a healthy, suseptible experimentaly host.
4. The same germ must be reisolated from the diseased experimental host
Types of Direct contact
handshaking kissing, sex, bites
Types of Indirect transmission
drinking glasses, toothbrushes, toys, punctures (contact)
Types of Droplet transmission
sneezing (contact)
Types of Airborne transmission
dust particles (vehicle)
Types of Waterborne transmission
streams; swimming pools (vehicle)
Types of Foodborne transmission
poultry, seafood, meat (vehicle)
Types of Mechanical transmission
on insect bodies (roaches, flies) (vector)
Types of Biological transmission
lice, mites, mosquitoes, ticks (vectors)
Define Nosocomial infections and list two types
Infections acquired in a hospital setting.
1. Superinfection - result from the use of antimicrobial drugs by inhibiting some resident normal flora allowing others to thrive in the abscense of competition
2. Secondary infection - infections that follow a primary infection; usually by opportunistic pathogens
Define Iatrogenic infection
Infection that directly results from a medical procedure
What is the role of epidermiologist?
"Disease detectives"
1. Constant surveillance - reportable diseases (CDC - MMWR)
2. Index cases - first people infected; identifying organisms
3. Routes of transmission
4. Cause of disease
Define index case
first people infected; identifying organisms
Define sporadic
pops up every now and then
Define Endemic
around all the time at very low levels
Define Outbreak
surge of 1 disease all at the same time usually from the same source
Define Epidemic
if an outbreak spreads, larger than usual number of cases all over the country
Define Pandemic
when an epdemic spreads worldwide