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76 Cards in this Set

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The science of classification of different lifeforms to establish the relationship of one organism to another.
Arrangement of organisms into taxonomic catagories to show the degree of similarities among organisms.
AKA systematics. The study of evolutionary history of organisms.
One level above kingdom and includes all 3 cell types.
Domain Eukarya includes...
1. animals
2. plants
3. fungi
4. protists
Domain Bacteria includes...
1. pathogenic prokaryotes
2. nonpathogenic prokaryotes
found in soil and water.
3. photoautotropic prokaryotes
Domain Arachea includes...
Prokaryotes with zero peptidoglycan in their cell walls
Endosymbiontic theory
Hypothesis that eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells living inside one another.
Karen Nelson
Discovered, through sequencing of the genome Thermatoga Maritima,that this species has genes simailar to memebers if both the Domain Bacteria and Domain Archaea.
Thermatoga Maritima
Referred to as on of the "deeply branching genera" which means it is at the root of the evolutionary tree.
Phylogenetic Heirarchy
The grouping of organisms according to common properties which implies that a group of organisms eveolved for a common ancestor.
Where does the information to classify and determine phylogenetic relationships come from?
Why are there rules for naming an organism by binomial scientific nomenclature?
Because it enables scientists to share information accurately and effciently regardless of native language.
Rules for assignment of names for protozoa and parasitic worms are located in ______?
The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
Rules for assigning names for fungi and algae are located in the _____?
International ode of Botanical Nomenclature
Rules for naming newly classified prokaryotes and then assigning taxa are established by ______?
Commitee of Systematic Bacteriology
What is in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology?
Descriptions of prokaryotes and evidence of their classification.
After being published and incorporated into the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, where would you find reference of prokaryotes?
Bergey's Manual
According to the bacteriological code,how are scientific names chosen?
Scientific names are to be taken from Latin or Latinized by to addition of the appropriate suffix.
Latin suffix for order is ___?
Latin suffix for family is ___?
Besides Latin, a Genus name can also be taken from ____?
In modern day microbioloy due to new laboratory techniques making more detailed characterizations of microbes __1__ genera may be reclassified as a _2_ genus, or _3_ genus may be divided into tow or more genera.
1. two
2. single
3. one
Because the transition from a new name from an old one can be confusing, how do scientists clarify the old name?
It is written using parentheses.
Why is it important to (+) ID the organism in question?
So care providers know which RX/TX to use
What are Eukaryotic species?
a group of closely related organisms that breed among themselves
What is a genus?
The taxon between family and species.
What makes up a family?
Related genera
What makes up an order?
A group of similiar families
What makes up a class?
A group of similiar orders.
What makes up a phylum?
Related classes
A particular organism that has a genus name and a specific epithet belongs to....
A family, order, class, and phylum.
What makes up a kingdom?
All phyla or divisions that are related to each other
What makes up a domain?
Related kingdoms
Where is the taxanomic classification scheme for prokaryotes found?
Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology
What is a prokaryotic species?
A population of cells with similiar characteristics
What is a clone in a pure culture?
A population of cells derived from a single parent cell.
What is a strain?
Genetically different cells within a clone
What is included in the Kingdom Protista?
Eukaryotic organisms that don't fit anywhere else
What are hyphae?
Cells of a multicellular fungus that form tubed in which connect the cells to one another.
What is a viral species?
A population a viruses with similiar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche.
ID of a microorganim is done for...
Practical purposes i.e. determining the appropriate tx for an infection.
Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology has been a widely used reference that provides ID schemes that are based on.....
1. Cell wall composition
2. Differential Staining
3. Morphology
4. 02 requirements
Bacteria can be differentiated by the widely used biochemical tests such as....
enzymatic acitvites
Most Gram (-) bacteria are...
A large heterogeneous group of microbes whose natural habitat is the intestinal tract.
Among the enteric bacteria are member of the genera....
1. Escherichia
2. Enterobacter
3. Shigella
4. Citrobacter
5. Salmonella
Rapid ID tools for medically important bacteria can ID bacteria within.....
4-24 hrs
Numerical ID of bacteria are....
Bacterial ID schemes that are assigned a number
What is Serology?
The science that studies blood serum and immune responses that are evident in serum.
What is antiserum?
A blood dervived fluid that contains antibodies.
What is a slide agglutination test?
A method of ID'ing an antigen by combining it with a specific antibody on a slide.
How do you ID a (+) slide agglutination test?
Because is has a grainy appearance due to the clumping of bacteria.
How do you ID a (-) slide agglutination test?
Because the bacteria has zero clumping and is still evenly distributed in the saline and antiserum.
What is serological testing?
Techniques for ID'ing a microorganism based on it's reaction with antibodies and can differentiate not only between microbial species, but also among different strains among species.
What is a serovar (aka serotype or biovar)?
A variation within a species with different antigens.
What is ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay)?
A group of serological tests that use enzyme reactions as indicators.
How does direct ELISA testing work?
1. Known antibodies are plaved in well of a microplate and an unknown type of bacterium is placed in each well.
2. A reaction between the known antibodies and the bacteria provides (+) ID of the bacteria
What is Western Blotting?
techinique that uses antibodies to detect the presence of specific proteins seperated by electrophoresis.
How does the Western Blot work?
1. Electrophesis is used to seperate proteins in the serum sample which contains may molecules of a particular proteins.
2. The bands are transferred to a nitrocellose filter by blotting.
3. Anitbodies are tagged with an enzyme and washed over the filter.
4. If a specific antigen is present, the antibodies will combine with it and will be visable colored band on the filter after the addition of the enzyme's substrate.
What is Phage Typing?
A test for determinig which phages a bacterium is susceptible to.
What is bacteriophages?
Highly specialized bacterial viruses that usually cause lysis of the bacterial cells they infect.
Phage typing can be used to....
trace the source of an infection by oobservung the phages that infect and lyse bacterial cells which clears that bacterial growth apperaing on the agar.
Fatty acid profiles can be used to....
Seperate cellular faty acids and then compare them to faty acid profiles of known organisms. Only used for ID NOT for phylogenetic relatedness.
What is flow cytometry?
A method of counting cells using a flow cytometer, which detects cells by detecting te difference in electical conductivity between cells and the surrounding medium.
What is DNA base composition?
The moles-% of guanine and cytosine (G + C) in an organisms DNA and is used as a classification technique by ID'ing the degree of species relatedness.
What is DNA fingerprinting?
Analysis of DNA by electophoresis of restriction enzyme fragments of the DNA. Basically DNA from 2 microorganisms are treated with the same restriction enzyme and then the DNA fragments are seperated with electrophoresis on a thin layer of agar. The the 2 sets of different fragements are compared to determine relatedness.
What is rRNA sequencing?
A technique currently being used to determine the diversity of organsims and the phylogenetic relationships among them.
What are the 3 advantages to using rRNA sequencing?
1. All cells have ribosomes.
2. RNA undergo few changes over time.
3. Cells do not have to be cultured in a lab.
What is polymerase chain reaction?
A technique using DNA polymerase to make multiple copies of a DNA template in vitro.
What is TaqMan?
A commercial system that uses polymerase chain reactions to ID E.Coli in food and water.
What is nucleic acid hybridization?
The proces of combining single complimentary strands of DNA. This procedure measures the ability of DNA strands from one organism to hybridize with another organism. The greater the degree of hybridization, the greater the relatedness.
What is Southern Blotting?
A technique that uses DNA probes to detect the presence of specific DNA in restriction fragments seperated by electrophoresis.
What are DNA probes?
A short, labeled, single strand of DNA or RNA used to locate it's complementary strand in a quantity of DNA.
What is a DNA chip?
A chip composed of DNA probes that makes it possible to quickly detect a pathogen in a host by identifying a gene that is unique to that pathogen.
What are dichotomous keys?
An identification scheme based on successive paired questions; answering 1 question leads to another pair of questions until an organism is identified.
What are cladograms?
a dichotomous phylogenetic tree that branches repeatedly, suggesting the classification of organsims based on the time sequence in which evolutionary branches arose.