Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why are Nosocomial diseases contracted? (3 reasons)
1. patients carry lots of infections
2. patients are immunocompromised
3. hospital personnel and equipment can be contaminated
Nosocomial infections are caused by what? (5 types)
1. blood stream infections
2. burn wound infections
3. urinary tract infections
4. surgical site infections
5. respiratory infections
Source of bacteria for nosocomial diseases can be?
Exogenous or endogenous
Examples of opportunistic bacteria that start up nosocomial diseases? (3)
E. coli, Staph aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What is the standard abbbreviation for Peridontal Disease?
ANUG- acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
periodontal- around tooth
gingivitis- gum inflammation
Causative agents of periodontal disease?
Porphyromonas gingivalis, Leptotrichia buccalis, Eikenella
all are G- rods

Treponema vincentii: G- spirochete
Pathogenicity/Process of Periodontal disease?
with plaque formation, bacteria colonize periodontal pckets @ gum/tooth border
bacteria produce toxins then proteases
cause inflammation of gums (gingivitis) then bone destruction
loss of tooth possible
ANUG is associated with what factors? (4)
poor oral hygiene, malnutrition, smoking, and mental stress
Control of ANUG?
plaque removal: brush and floss; no floss ANUG can occur in absence of cavities
Why and how does plaque form?
-Acquired enamel pellicle made up of negative charged glycoproteins that repel - bacteria
- plaque disrupts natural repulsion
- pellicle colonized by streptococci and other bact.
- coaggregation of bacteria through LECTIN-CARBOHYDRATE RECEPTOR INTERACTIONS
- streptococci produce enzyme that polymerizes sucrose into glucan polymers
- glucan cements bacteria together to form plaque
What cements bacteria together to form plaque?
What causes dental caries?
Streptococcus mutans, mitis, oralis, and sanguis
What do Streptococcus mutans, mitis, oralis, and sanguis produce?
Acids (lactic, acetic, formic, butyric) after metabolizing sucrose and other sugars
Why is plaque so hard to get rid of? And why can't you get rid of the acids?
B/c not permeable to saliva, therefore the plaque that has the bacteria that make the acids are hard to wash away or dilute
What do the acids that are produced by the Streptococcus bacteria in the mouth do?
demineralize enamel and underlying dentin (break down hydroxyapatite)
What 3 things are necessary in order for dental caries to occur?
1. buildup of plaque
2. dietary carbohydrate (sucrose)
3. acidogenic bacteria