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67 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 main types of airborne transmission?
1. infected person to susceptible person via talking, spitting, sneezing
2. dust w/ pathogen to susceptible person
3. aerosols of water (AC or spray)
What are the two ways to classify Streptococci?
1. Hemolytic properties
2. Cell wall carbohydrate
Hemolytic properties of Streptococci (3)?
1. alpha: partial destruction: olive green cells
2. beta: complete destruction: clear zone around cells
3. gamma y: no effect - no change
C substance?
Carbohydrate group
designated groups A-O
What is the most harmful type of Streptococci to humans?
Group A beta hemolytic streptococci
Causative agent of Strep throat?
Streptococcus pyogenes, G+, cocci
Transmission of Strep Throat?
Airborne droplets
Pathogenicity of Strep Throat?
M protein and pili adhere to pharyngeal tissue and retards phagocytosis
Why is it so hard to immunize against Strep Throat?
Because there are over 60 different types of M protein in cell wall of S. pyogenes
Major symptoms of Strep Throat?
high fever, cough, swollen lymph nodes, red pharyngeal tissue erosion, NO RUNNY NOSE!
Treatment of Strep throat?
Name all the complications associated with Strep throat (6)
Scarlet fever, erysipelas, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis, septicemia, and necrotizing fascitis
Causative agent of Scarlet fever
Streptococcus pyogenes G+, BUT with a lysogenized bacteriophage that has an erythrogenic toxin
virus is in bacteria!
Pathogenicity of Scarlet fever?
Bacteriophage encoded erythrogenic toxin
Major symptoms of Scarlet fever?
red rash due to blood leaking through walls of capillaries that's damaged by toxin. Rash in soft skin areas: neck, mouth, chest
Treatment of Scarlet fever?
Pathogenicity of Erysipelas?
acute infection of dermal layer that usually affects infants and people over age of 30 with history of strep throat
Symptoms of Erysipelas?
chronic painful red patches occurring at same body site
Treatment of Erysipelas?
Pathogenicity of Rheumatic Fever?
Immune response to antigen on Streptococcus pyogenes. Antibodies cross react with antigens on human heart and joints
Major symptoms of rheumatic fever?
Fever, inflammation, scarring and distortion of heart valves and joints
Pathogenicity of Glomerulonephritis?
Ag-Ab complexes are lodged in glomeruli
Symptoms of glomerulonephritis?
Pain and inflammation in kidneys
Pathogenicity of necrotizing fascitis?
infection of sheath around skeletal muscle
Symptoms of necrotizing fascitis?
dissolving of flesh- extensive destruction of the subcutaneous tissue
Pathogenicity of Septicemia?
infection of the blood that spreads through circulatory system
Major symptoms of Septicemia?
blood infected and spreads throughout body can die in 2 hours.
Causative agent of Diptheria?
Corynebacterium diptheriae, G+, has metachromatic granules, palisade/chinese character formation
Transmission of Diptheria?
Inhalation of droplets near tonsils
Pathogenicity of Diptheria?
Exotoxin encoded by lysogenic corynephage that interferes with protein synthesis of epithelial cells.
Symptoms of Diptheria?
Pseudomembrane with WBC, fibrous material, dead tissue, mucus that results in respiratory blockage
Treatment of Diptheria?
Antitoxin, antibiotic
Vaccinate with DTaP - diptheria toxoid
Causative agent of Pertussis?
Bordetella pertussis, G-, rod bacteria
Transmission of Pertussis?
Airborne droplets- pili of bacteria adhere to cilia of epithelial cells
Pathogenicity of Pertussis?
ciliated cells destroyed and mucosal escalator impaired
Major symptoms of Pertussis? (3)
1. Malaise- low grade fever, worsening cough
2. Paroxysms: stacatto coughs with rapid inhale due to disintegrating cells and mucus accumulation in airways
3. 100 day cough
malaise, paroxysms, 100 day cough
Treatment of Pertussis:
Vaccinate with DTaP: acellular pertussis - chemical extract
Causative agent of meningitis?
Neisseria meningitidis, G-, encapsulated DIPLOCOCCUS
Transmission of meningitis?
Bacteria, viruses and Haemophilus influenze B
Pathogenicity of Meningitis?
inflammation of meninges. Bacterial ENDOTOXIN spread into blood stream and CSF causing shock. Death can occur in 2 hours.
Symptoms of Meningitis (2 sets)
Mild: influenza like upper respiratory infection
Serious: pounding headache and stiff neck from inflammation of meninges. PETECHIAE appear (red to blue-black spots). 50% death rate if untreated.
Treatment of Meningitis (3 drugs)? Diagnosis?
Diagnosis with spinal tap
Treat with rifampin, penicillin or sulfonamide drugs
Rifampin used as a prophylactic drug if exposure has occurred
Complications of meningitis?
Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome: formation of lesions in adrenal glands accompanied by hormonal imbalances.
Causative agent of Tuberculosis?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, not + or -, acid fast rod that has MYCOLIC acid in cell wall
Tranmission of Tuberculosis?
Inhalation through multiple exposures; enters through alveolus
More symptoms of tuberculosis? (10/90)
10% ill in 3 months; cough, chest pain, fever blood in sputum
90%: fever and weight loss
Symptoms of tuberculosis?
tubercle formation: living bacteria, WBC, salts, and fibrous materials. Tubercle breaks and will spread bacteria to liver, kidneys, meninges,and bone
Tuberculosis spread to bone is called what?
Miliary tuberculosis
sounds like military
Treatment of tuberculosis? Vaccination?
Isoniazid: but with toxic side effects
Vaccine with PPD: purified protein derivative
What is MDR-TB and how do you treat it?
MDR-TB = multidrug resistant tuberculosis and is treated with 2 drugs for 6-9 months
In developing countries, more deaths ocur from which disease than any other bacterial disease?
Causative agent of Pneumococcal pneumonia?
80% caused by different strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, G+, encapsulated diplococci

some are caused by viruses
Tranmission of pneumococcal pneumonia?
airborne droplets
Pathogenicity of Pneumococcal pneumonia?
can have bacterial or viral pneumonia, infection of the lungs where only compromised are affected
Symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia?
Fever, dry hacking cough, fatigue
Treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia?
Causative agent of Primary Atypical Pneumonia?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, no cell wall, pleomorphic, small bacteria
Transmission of Primary Atypical Pneumonia?
Airborne droplets
Pathogenicity of Primary Atypical Pneumonia?
- attach to and destroy ciliated cells lining respiratory tract.
- primary disease that occurs in healthy people
Symptoms of Primary Atypical Pneumonia?
Fever, dry hacking cough, fatigue
Treatment of Primary Atypical Pneumonia?
Erythromycin, tetracycline (protein inhibitors); penicillin doesn't work due to no cell wall
Primary Atypical Pneumonia is similar to what disease associated with a bird and its droppings?
Psittacosis by Chlamydiae psittaci
Causative agent of Legionnaires Disease?
Legionella pneumophila, G-, rod bacteria
Transmission of Legionnaires disease?
where water collects, person to person is uncommon
Pathogenicity of Legionnaires disease?
Legionella cannot exist in water alone- grows inside waterborne protozoa (vector)
Symptoms of Legionnaires disease?
fever, dry cough, diarrhea and vomiting (like bad flu)
Treatment of Legionnaires disease?
Erythromycin, treat water source with chlorine or heat to prevent more cases