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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Toxins
Any poisonous substance produced by a microorganism
Toxemia
The presence of toxins in the blood
Endotoxin
Part of the outer portion of the cell wall (lipid A) of most gram-negative bacteria; released on destruction of the cell
Exotoxin
A protein toxin released from living, mostly gram-positive bacterial cells
Normal Microbiota
The microorganisms that colonize an animal without causing disease
Reservoir of Infection
Sites where pathogens are maintained as a source of infection (Animal Reservoir, Human Carriers, Nonliving Reservoirs)
Droplet Transmission
The transmission of infection by small liquid droplets carrying microorganisms
Vehicle Transmission
The transimssion of a pathogen to a large number of people by an inanimate res
Airborne Transmission
The spread of pathogens greater than 1 meter in air from reservoir to susceptible host
Virulence
The degree of pathogenicity of a microorganism
Vector
A plasmid or virus used in genetic engineering to insert genes into a cell
Fomites
Non-Living Objects
Capsid
The protein coat of a virus that surrounds the nucleic acid
Lysogenic Cycle
Stages in viral development that result in the incorporation of viral DNA into host DNA
Lytic Cycle
A mechanism of phage multiplication that results in host cell lysis
Pathology
The scientific study of disease
Infection
The invasion of growth of microorganisms in the body
Disease
An abnormal state in which part or all of the body is not properly adjusted or is incapable of performing normal functions any change from a state of health
Pathogenesis
The manner in which a disease develops
Symbiosis
The living together of two different organisms or populations
Persistant Viral Infection
A disease process that occurs over a long period; also called slow viral infection
Latent Disease
A disease characterized by a period of no symptoms when the pathogen is inactive
Commensal
A symbiotic relationship in which two organisms live in association and one is benefitted while the other is neither benefitted nor harmed
Mutualism
Type of symbiosis in which both organisms or populations are benefitted
Ribosome
The site of protein synthesis in a cell; composed of RNA and protein
Transcription
Process of synthesizing RNA from DNA template
Translation
Use of mRNA as a template in the synthesis of protein
Codon
A sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA that specifies the insertion of an amino acid into a protein
Anticodon
The three nucleotides by which tRNA recognizes an mRNA codon
Operon
The operator and promoter sites and structural genes they control
Restriction Enzymes
Enzymes that cut double stranded DNA, leaving sticky ends
Vector
A plasmid or virus used in genetic engineering to insert genes into a cell