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83 Cards in this Set

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Prions wwere discovered by
Stanly Pruisner
The protein coat of the virus is called
capsid
A complete virus is called a
virion
A virus that coexists with its host is called
temperate virus
This virus is known to cause liver cancer
HBV
This virus secretes a______to soften the host cell before entry
lysozyme
The time from adsorption to release is called
burst time
This virus is responsible for a std
HSV2
These virus-like particles cause diseases only in plants
viroids
Rubella is a known example for a
teratogen
A virus that infects bacteria is known as
bacteriophage
Prions are known to excessively accumulate in
plasma membrane
Retrovirus contains
RNA
Viroids are naked
RNA
This is the best method to grow viral vaccines
diploid fibroblast strains
This is a retrovirus
HTLV
The presense of viroid can be detected by this method
RNA sequencing
These enzymes are known to join 2 DNA moleculed together
Ligase
This virus is known to cause cerivical cancer in women
HPV 8
........is a virus known to cause leukemia in humans
HTLV
Localized accumulation of invasive, abnormal cells is known as
tumor
A start codon is always
methionine
Mad cow disease is caused by
prion
Tomato apical stunt disease is caused by a
viriod
Caffeine is an example for
base analong
Acridine dervatives always cause
frame shift
The Ames test uses an auxotrop of
Salmonella
Ultra violet rays cause dimmer effect on these molecules
pyrimidine
Light repair takes place exclusively in these organisms
bacteria
Transduction happens between a bacteria and
viruses
These plasmids are only found in fungi
T1 plasmids
this plasmid plays an important role in establishing pathogenicity in killer bacteria
Virulent plasmidss
Bacteria killing proteins are known as
bacteriocins
These genes are known as jumping genes
transposon
Bacteria killing protein are produced by genes located on this plasmid
bacteriocinogen
Alkylating agents add this molecule to the bases
CH3
Clolstrum is a bodily fluid rich in
antibodies
These proteins that can slice DNA into bits
restriction enzymes
Immunoglobulin is mainly present in blood
IgG
Immunoglobulin are also known as
antibodies
This immunoglobulin is connected with the mast and baseophils and is used to detect an allergic reaction
IgE
These small non protein molecules bind with larger protein molecules and cause anaphylctic reaction
Hapten
Tolerance in host cells is achieved by
Radiation
UV mutation involves the aligning of 2 adjecent
pyrimidine
For sucessful conjugation to occur one of the bacterial cells must contain this plasmid
F plasmid
Antigens usually contain antigen binding sites called
epitopes
Kaposi Sarcoma is mainly associated with this virus
HIV
A cell without a cell wall is known as
protoplast
Monoclonal antibodies are a fusion of
myeloma cancer
......are Y shaped molecules
antibody
A site to which antibodies bind on an antigen is known as
epitope
The first stage of viral replication is
adsorption
synthesis of lysozyme takes place in this stage
penetration
The viral nucleic acid and capsid are assembled to produce new viral particles in this stage
maturation
This monoclonal antibody is used in the treatment of leukemia
rituxan
Kuru is caused by
prions
Gardasil is an effective vaccine for prevention of this virus
HPV 8
A known teratogen found in the Arkansas river is
mercury
Proteins are synthesized in this organelle
ribosomes
Cephalomycin, a cephalosporin is produced by this genetic engineering method
protoplast fusion
Mustard gas is known as
alkylating agent
Naturally occuring mutation are known as
spontaneous mutation
This bacteriocin is commericially available and used on cheese
Nisin
List 3 reasons as to why viruses are considered as non living
No organelles
Need living host
Synthesis
What is a Torch series? Why is it used in medicine?
It is used to detect tetagen, so it detects birth defects in the embryo
List 3 differences between viroids & viruses
Viruses die w/radiation, die @ 90 degrees C, and have NA and protein. Viriods - do not require a helper virus, RNA is alway copied in the in the host cell nucleus, & viroid consists of a single circular RNA molecule
List 3 diseases caused by viroids
Potato spindle tuber, chrysanthemum stunt disease, tomato apical stunt
List the 3 steps in heredity. Explain each stage.
Replication - DNA produces more DNA
Transcription - DNA helps make RNA
Translation - RNA combines w/amino acids to produce proteins
Differentiate the characteristics between the 2 types of strains used by Fredrick Griffiths
Used Smooth R (killed) and Rough R (did not kill)
4 different types of mutation. Which causes cancer
Point, frameshift, UV, and spontaneous. Framshift causes cancer
List 2 types of DNA repair mechanisms. Explain the role of the 4 different enzymes involved in human DNA repair
Light & Dark
1. Endonucleus
2. DNA polymerse
3. Exonucleus
4. Ligase
What is the dimer effect? Which mutagen causes it.
consist of two adjacent pyrimidine (two thymine, two cytosines, or thymine and cytosine) bond together in a DNA strand
List and explain 2 tools of biotechnology
Gene Amplification - plasmids self replicate
Recombinate DNA - recombines 2 different DNA from 2 organsisms to create commerial products like insulin
6 Major groups of plasmids. Which plasmids are involved in the synthesis of bacteria killing proteins and antibotic resistance
F, R, Catabolite, bacteriocigens, virulent, & T1. Bacteriocigins - kill proteins. R - resistant to antibotics
What is taxol and Factor VIII? What are they used for?
both are products of genetic engineering. Taxol is an anti cancer drug. Factor VIII is a blood clotting drug
List 3 diseases caused by prions
scrapie, kura, bsc
Explain 2 ways of getting naturally acquired immunity
Exposure to disease and drinking colostrum
List 4 properties of a good immune system. Which one plays a role during organ transplantation
Self vs. Host - play role
Memory
diversity
specificity
List 3 immunoglobulins & cite location of 2
IgA - tears
IgG - blood
IgM
What does DPT& MMR stand for
Measles, Mumps, & Rubella
Diptheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis
List 2 kinds of polio vaccines? which is is better & why?
Salks - dead virus last 3 to 5 years
Sabine - live virus last for 10 years
How does a vaccine differ from a taxiod
vaccine a person is injected w/live or dead virus
Taxiod - a person is injected w/toxin
List 3 known cancers caused by viruses
Cerivical cancer
liver cancer
cancer of connective tissue