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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The properties of a cell which are determined by its DNA composition are its
Genotype
The source of variation among microorganisms that were once identical is
mutation
The characteristics displayed by an organism in any given environment is its
Phenotype
Direct selection involves inoculating cells onto growth media on which
the mutant but not the parental will grow
A clever technique that streamlines the identification of auxotrophic mutants is
Replica Plating
Mutants that will grow at one temperature but not at another are called
Temperature sensitive mutants
Conditional Lethal Mutants
Both A & B
The F plasmid carries the information for
The sex pillus
In conjugation the donor cell is recognized by the presence of
An F plasmid
Gene transfer that requires cell-to-cell contact is
Conjugation
Which technique is/are used to identify and classify bacteria?
Microscopic Examination
Culture Characteristics
Biochemical Tests
Nucleic Acid Analysis
All of the Above
From most general to most specific, which is the correct order
Kingdom, phylm, class, order, family, genus, species
The three domain classification scheme uses
Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya
Gram-positive encapsulated diplococci found in sputum is indicative of
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
Intracellular Gram-negative diplocci found in a urethral sample from a male is indicative of
Neisseria gonorrhea
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the few species of bacteria that
are acid fast
Streptococcus pyogenes would be
beta hemolytic and catalase negative
Organisms that grow very slowly, are nonculturable, are present in very small number or are mixed with a number of other bacteria may still be identified using
PCR
A soluble greenish pigment is produced by
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Lactic acid bacteria such as Streptococci
are obligate fermenters
Streptococcus pyogenes
is beta hemolytic
Proprionibacterium
Produces propionic acid
Is responsible for the holes in Swiss cheese
Both A and C
The gram positive rod which is also acid-fast and is a human pathogen is
Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae
Include E. coli, Enterobacter, Salmonella, and Shigella.
Include many medically relevant bacteria.
Primarily reside in the intestinal tract of humans and animals.
Are facultative anaerobes.
All of the above.
Bacteria that may form endospores include
Clostridium and Bacillus
Organisms that typically produce colonies with a fried egg appearance are the
Mycoplasma
Treponema and Borrelia
Are Spirochaetes
Reticulate and elementary bodies are two forms of
Chlamydia
True or False
Lactic acid bacteria such as Streptococus are obligate fermenters that can exist in an aerobic environment due to their use of catalase to mitigate the presence of oxygen.
False
True or False. Chlamydia occurs in two forms, a reticulate body and an elementary body
True
Algae are important environmentally as
major producers of oxygen
Macroscopic algae possess a special structure that acts as an anchor and is commonly called
a holdfast
The site in a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell where photosynthesis occurs is the
Chloroplast
Paralytic shellfish poisoning occurs when humans eat shellfish that have fed on
Gonyaulax spp.
Single-celled eukaryotic organisms that lack chlorophyll are called
Protozoa
All fungi have ________ in their cell walls.
Chitin
Dimorphic fungi
May grow as mycelia or yeast.
Oar often associated with disease in humans.
Both A and B
Fungi capable of dimorphism grow either as
yeast-like or mycelium
The most necessary habitat requirement of protozoa is
moisture
Aflatoxins
Are produced by Aspergillus
Are possible carcinogens
May be found in peanuts
Are Toxins
All of the above
Lyme disease is transmitted by
Ticks
Nemotodes
Are Roundworms
Are found in the gastrointestinal tract or the blood.
Both A and B
Sarcoptes scabiei
Are responsible for Scabies
Fleas
If ingested, may transmit a tapeworm to children
May transmit Yersinia pestis
Both A and B
True or False. Protozoans are eukaryotes and as such have a nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts.
False
True or False. Fungi are often capable of locomotion through the use of flagella.
False
True or False. Protozoans are usually multicellular and found in arid environments.
False
Viruses that infect bacteria are referred to as
Bacteriophages
The shape of a virus is determined by its
capsid
Outside of living cells viruses are
Metabolically inert
The phenomenon responsible for the ability of Corynebacterium diptherium to produce the virulent toxin responsible for the devastating effects of diptheria is called
Lysogenic conversion.
API Enterotube and Vitek are all
commercially available methods used to identify bacteria.
Which of the following organisms is the causative agent of Hansen's disease (leprosy)?
Mycobacterium leprae
True or False. Obligate aerobes may transform energy via fermentation.
False
Segments of DNA capable of moving from one area in the DNA to another are called
Transposons
The formation of a covalent bond between two adjacent thymines is caused by
UV radiation
XRays
Cause single and double strand breaks.
Indirect selection
is necessary to isolate auxotrophic mutants
The mechanism by which genes are transferred into bacteria via viruses is called
Transduction
The basic taxonomic unit in the classification scheme of all living things is
species
Very often clinically relevant information may be obtained by examining
A wet mount
The Size and shape of the organism
Both A and B
A selective growth media
Allow only certain bacteria to grow.
Media changes color as a result of the biochemical activity of growing bacteria
Usually contain a pH indicator in the media
Nucleic acid techniques have great power as diagnostic tools because they may be
very specific
In E coli o157:H7, the o157:h7 refers to the
specific LPS and flagella type present
The reference for taxonomic descriptions of baccteria is
Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology
Endospores
Are a dormant form of a bacterium
Are formed by members of medically relevant groups of bacteria
Both B and C
The lactobacilli, in their role as normal flora of the vagina, help the vagina resist infection by contributing to
acidity of the vagina.
Coliforms
Are an informal grouping of enterics
Ferment Lactose
Include E. Coli
Are used as indictator of fecal contamination
All of the Above
True or False. The most medically relevant species of Pseudomonas is P. aeruginosa
True
Free-floating, photosynthetic organisms found in marine environments are
Phytoplankton
Agar is obtained from
Algae
Protozoans are an important part of the food chain ingesting large numbers of
Bacteria and algae
The ability to exist as either a trophozoite or a cyst is characteristic of many
Protozoa
Most fungi are
aerobic or facultatively anaerobic.
Fungal diseases are generally referred to as
Mycoses
Which are not arthropods
Flukes
True or False. Algae may directly infect humans and cause disease.
False
Which does not refer to the shape of a virus
Bacillus
The protein projections on the surface of a virus that are involved in attachment tot he host cell are called
Spikes
What part of the attached bacteriophage enters through the host cell wall?
The nucleic acid
A phage that replicates inside the host cell and then lyses its host during its release is a
Virulent phage
The correct order for the stages of a phage infection are
Attachment, Penetration, Transcription, Replication of nucleic acid and protein, assembly, release.
APTRAR
Phages that can either replicate and cause cell lysis or can integrate their DNA into the host DNA are called
Lysogenic phages
A temperate phage
May be lysogenic
Chooses between lysogenic and lytic life cycles shortly after entering the host cell.
Both A and C.
The bacterial viruses that are released by a process termed extrusion are called
Filamentous phages
The filamentous phages all contain
Single-stranded DNA
The groups of organisms that a virus may infect is known as its
Host range.
A particular characteristic of disease-causing Streptococcus is
Beta-hemolysis
True or False Plasmids often carry the information for antibiotic resistance.
True
PCR is particularly useful in
Detecting viable yet non-culturable organisms
Assessing impure (multiple types of bacteria present) samples.
Dealing with very small numbers of bacteria.
Relatively quickly producing results
All of the above.
A gram-negative rod found in a urine sample from an otherwise healthy person would be suggestive of
Neisseria gonorrhea
Gas chromatography of fatty acids is useful for identifying
bacteria by the unique pattern of fatty acids found in their membranes.
True or False. Size and shape may allow one to differentiate between a bacterium, fungus, or protozoan.
True
True or False. Streptococcus pyogenes can be easily distinguished microscopically from other Streptococcus.
False
The terms yeast, mold, and mushrooms refer to fungal
Morphology
A tangle of fungal hyphae is generally known as a
Mycelium
Heliobacter pylori
inhabit the stomach
Which of the following colonize the vagina during child bearing years?
Lactobacilli