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86 Cards in this Set

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HAPLOID CELL
A EUKARYOTIC CELL OR ORGANISM WITH ONE OF EACH TYPE OF CHROMOSOME
R-DETERMINANT
A GROUP OF GENES FOR ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE CARRIED ON R FACTORS
TRANSFER RNA (tRNA)
THE TYPE OF RNA MOLECULE THAT BRINGS AMINO ACIDS TO THE RIBOSOMAL SITE WHERE THEY ARE INCORPORATED INTO PROTEINS
MISSENSE MUTATION
A MUTATION THAT RESULTS IN THE SUBSTITUTION OF AN AMINO ACID IN A PROTEIN
TRANSDUCTION
THE TRANSFER OF DNA FROM ONE CELL TO ANOTHER BY A BACTERIOPHAGE
CODON
A SEQUENCE OF THREE NUCLEOTIDES IN mRNA THAT SPECIFIES THE INSERTION OF AN AMINO ACID INTO A POLYPEPTIDE
CROSSING OVER
THE PROCESS BY WHICH A PORTION OF ONE CHROMOSOME IS EXCHANGED WITH A PORTION OF ANOTHER CHROMOSOME
SPONTANEOUS MUTATION
A MUTATION THAT OCCURS WITHOUT A MUTAGEN
INTRON
A REGION IN A EUKARYOTIC GENE THAT DOES NOT CODE FOR A PROTEIN OR mRNA
CONJUGATIVE PLASMID
A PROKARYOTIC PLASMID THAT CARRIES GENES FOR SEX PILI AND FOR TRANSFER OF THE PLASMID TO ANOTHER CELL
DNA
THE NUCLEOTIDE OF GENETIC MATERIAL IN ALL CELLS AND SOME VIRUSES
REPLICA PLATING
A METHOD OF INOCULATING A NUMBER OF SOLID MINIMAL CULTURE MEDIA FROM AN ORIGINAL PLATE TO PRODUCE THE SAME PATTERN OF COLONIES ON EACH PLATE
CATABOLIC REPRESSION
INHIBITION OF THE METABOLISM OF ALTERNATE CARBON SOURCES BY GLUCOSE
FRAMESHIFT MUTATION
A MUTATION CAUSED BY THE ADDITION OR DELETION OF ONE OR MORE BASES IN DNA
INDUCTION
THE PROCESS THAT TURNS ON THE TRANSCRIPTION OF A GENE
DONOR CELL
A CELL THAT GIVES DNA TO A RECIPIENT CELL DURING GENETIC RECOMBINATION
COREPRESSOR
A MOLECULE THAT BINDS TO A REPRESSOR PROTEIN, ENABLING THE REPRESSOR TO BIND TO AN OPERATOR
GENOMICS
THE STUDY OF GENES AND THEIR FUNCTION
BACTERIOPHAGE (PHAGE)
A VIRUS THAT INFECTS BACTERIAL CELLS
GENETIC CODE
THE mRNA CODONS AND THE AMINO ACIDS THEY ENCODE
BASE SUBSTITUTION
THE REPLACEMENT OF A SINGLE BASE IN DNA BY ANOTHER BASE, CAUSING A MUTATION; ALSO CALLED POINT MUTATION
HFR CELL
A BACTERIAL CELL IN WHICH THE F FACTOR HAS BECOME INTEGRATED INTO THE CHROMOSOME; HFR STANDS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OF RECOMBINATION
REPRESSION
THE PROCESS BY WHICH A REPRESSOR PROTEIN CAN STOP THE SYNTHESIS OF A PROTEIN
POSITIVE (DIRECT) SELECTION
A PROCEDURE FOR PICKING OUT MUTANT CELLS BY GROWING THEM
LAGGING STRAND
DURING DNA REPLICATION, THE DAUGHTER STRAND THAT IS SYNTHESIZED DISCONTINUOUSLY
MUTAGEN
AN AGENT IN THE ENVIRONMENT THAT BRINGS ABOUT MUTATIONS
F FACTOR (FERTILITY FACTOR)
A PLASMID FOUND IN THE DONOR CELL IN BACTERIAL CONJUGATION
PROMOTER
THE STARTING SITE ON A DNA STRAND FOR TRANSCRIPTION OF RNA BY RNA POLYMERASE
TERMINATOR
THE SITE ON A DNA STRAND AT WHICH TRANSCRIPTION ENDS
BASE PAIRS
THE ARRANGEMENT OF NITROGENOUS BASES IN NUCLEIC ACIDS BASED ON HYDROGEN BONDING; IN DNA, BASE PAIRS ARE A-T AND G-C; IN RNA, BASE PAIRS ARE A-U AND G-C
RESISTANCE (R) FACTOR
A BACTERIAL PLASMID CARRYING GENES THAT DETERMINE RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS
EXON
A REGION OF A EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOME THAT ENCODES A PROTEIN
GENE
A SEGMENT OF DNA (A SEQUENCE OF NUCLEOTIDES IN DNA) ENCODING A FUNCTIONAL PRODUCT
HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER
TRANSFER OF GENES BETWEEN TWO ORGANISMS IN THE SAME GENERATION
DNA LIGASE
AN ENZYME THAT COVALENTLY BONDS A CARBON ATOM OF ONE NUCLEOTIDE WITH THE PHOSPHATE OF ANOTHER NUCLEOTIDE
DEGENERACY
REDUNDANCY OF THE GENETIC CODE; THAT IS, MOST AMINO ACIDS ARE ENCODED BY SEVERAL CONDONS
TRANSLATION
THE USE OF mRNA AS A TEMPLATE IN THE SYNTHESIS OF PROTEIN
GENERALIZED TRANSDUCTION
THE TRANSFER OF BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME FRAGMENTS FROM ONE CELL TO ANOTHER BY A BACTERIOPHAGE
NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR (NER)
THE REPAIR OF DNA INVOLVING REMOVAL OF DEFECTIVE NUCLEOTIDES AND REPLACEMENT WITH FUNCTIONAL ONES
MUTATION RATE
THE PROBABILITY THAT A GENE WILL MUTATE EACH TIME A CELL DIVIDES
NUCLEOSIDE ANALOG
A CHEMICAL THAT IS STRUCTURALLY SIMILAR TO THE NORMAL NUCLEOSIDES IN NUCLEIC ACIDS BUT WITH ALTERED BASE-PAIRING PROPERTIES
INSERTION SEQUENCE (IS)
THE SIMPLEST KIND OF TRANSPOSON
CYCLIC AMP (cAMP)
A MOLECULE DERIVED FROM ATP, IN WHICH THE PHOSPHATE GROUP HAS A CYCLIC STRUCTURE; ACTS AS A CELLULAR MESSENGER
NONSENSE MUTATION
A BASE SUBSTITUTION IN DNA THAT RESULTS IN A NONSENSE CODON
REPRESSOR
A PROTEIN THAT BINDS TO THE OPERATOR SITE TO PREVENT TRANSCRIPTION
ENZYME INDUCTION
THE PROCESS BY WHICH A SUBSTANCE CAN CAUSE THE SYNTHESIS OF AN ENZYME
SPECIALIZED TRANSDUCTION
THE PROCESS OF TRANSFERRING A PIECE OF CELL DNA ADJACENT TO A PROPHAGE TO ANOTHER CELL
RNA PRIMER
A SHORT STRAND OF RNA USED TO START SYNTHESIS OF THE LAGGING STRAND OF DNA, AND TO START THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
MESSENGER RNA (mRNA)
THE TYPE OF RNA MOLECULE THAT DIRECTS THE INCORPORATION OF AMINO ACIDS INTO PROTEINS
NONSENSE CODON
A CODON THAT DOES NOT ENCODE ANY AMINO ACID
VERTICAL GENE TRANSFER
TRANSFER OF GENES FROM AN ORGANISM OR CELL TO ITS OFFSPRING
GENOTYPE
THE GENETIC MAKEUP OF AN ORGANISM
RECIPIENT CELL
A CELL THAT RECEIVES DNA FROM A DONOR CELL DURING GENETIC RECOMBINATION
OPERATOR
THE REGION OF DNA ADJACENT TO STRUCTURAL GENES THAT CONTROLS THEIR TRANSCRIPTION
PHENOTYPE
THE EXTERNAL MANIFESTATIONS OF AN ORGANISM'S GENOTYPE, OR GENETIC MAKEUP
AUXOTROPH
A MUTANT MICROORGANISM WITH A NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENT THAT IS ABSENT IN THE PARENT
CONSTITUTIVE ENZYME
AN ENZYME THAT IS PRODUCED CONTINUOUSLY
MUTATION
ANY CHANGE IN THE NITROGENOUS BASE SEQUENCE OF DNA
SENSE CODON
A CODON THAT CODES FOR AN AMINO ACID
STRUCTURAL GENE
A GENE THAT DETERMINES THE AMINO ACID SEQUENCE OF A PROTEIN
GENETICS
THE SCIENCE OF HEREDITY
DISSIMILATION PLASMID
A PLASMID CONTAINING GENES ENCODING PRODUCTION OF ENZYMES THAT TRIGGER THE CATABOLISM OF CERTAIN UNUSUAL SUGARS AND HYDROCARBONS
COMPETENCE
THE PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE IN WHICH A RECIPIENT CELL CAN TAKE AND INCORPORATE A LARGE PIECE OF DONOR DNA
BACTERIOCIN
AN ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE PRODUCED BY BACTERIA THAT KILLS OTHER BACTERIA
INDUCER
A SUBSTANCE THAT INITIATES TRANSCRIPTION OF A GENE
SEMICONSERVATIVE REPLICATION
THE PROCESS OF DNA REPLICATION IN WHICH EACH DOUBLE-STRANDED DNA MOLECULE CONTAINS ONE ORIGINAL STRAND AND ONE NEW STRAND
GENE LIBRARY
A COLLECTION OF CLONED DNA FRAGMENTS CREATED BY INSERTING RESTRICTION ENZYME FRAGMENTS IN A BACTERIUM, YEAST, OR PHAGE
DISSIMILATION
A METABOLIC PROCESS IN WHICH NUTRIENTS ARE NOT ASSIMILATED BUT ARE EXCRETED AS AMMONIA, HYDROGEN SULFIDE, AND SO ON
REPLICATION FORK
THE POINT WHERE DNA STRANDS SEPARATE AND NEW STRANDS WILL BE SYNTHESIZED
RESISTANCE TRANSFER FACTOR
A GROUP OF GENES FOR REPLICATION AND CONJUGATION ON THE R FACTOR
TRANSPOSON
A SMALL PIECE OF DNA THAT CAN MOVE FROM ONE DNA MOLECULE TO ANOTHER
NEGATIVE (INDIRECT) SELECTION
THE PROCESS OF IDENTIFYING MUTATIONS BY SELECTING CELLS THAT DO NOT GROW USING REPLICA PLATING
CARCINOGEN
ANY CANCER-CAUSING SUBSTANCE
TRIPLEX AGENT
A SHORT SEGMENT OF DNA THAT BINDS TO A TARGET AREA ON A DOUBLE STRAND OF DNA BLOCKING TRANSCRIPTION
GENOME
ONE COMPLETE COPY OF THE GENETIC INFORMATION IN A CELL
CONJUGATION
THE TRANSFER OF GENETIC MATERIAL FROM ONE CELL TO ANOTHER INVOLVING CELL-TO-CELL CONTACT
ANTICODON
THE THREE NUCLEOTIDES BY WHICH A tRNA RECOGNIZES AN mRNA CODON
TRANSFORMATION
(1) THE PROCESS IN WHICH GENES ARE TRANSFERRED FROM ONE BACTERIUM TO ANOTHER AS "NAKED" DNA IN SOLUTION (2) THE CHANGING OF A NORMAL CELL INTO A CANCEROUS CELL
LEADING STRAND
DURING DNA REPLICATION, THE DAUGHTER STRAND THAT IS SYNTHESIZED CONTINUOUSLY
LIGHT-REPAIR ENZYME
AN ENZYME THAT SPLITS THYMINE DIMERS IN THE PRESENCE OF VISIBLE LIGHT
OPERON
THE OPERATOR AND PROMOTER SITES AND STRUCTURAL GENES THEY CONTROL
TRANSCRIPTION
THE PROCESS OF SYNTHESIZING RNA FROM A DNA TEMPLATE
CHROMOSOME
THE STRUCTURE THAT CARRIES HEREDITARY INFORMATION, CHROMOSOMES CONTAIN GENES
GENETIC RECOMBINATION
THE PROCESS OF JOINING PIECES OF DNA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES
MITOSIS
A EUKARYOTIC CELL REPLICATION PROCESS IN WHICH THE CHROMOSOMES ARE DUPLICATED; FOLLOWED BY DIVISION OF THE CYTOPLASM OF THE CELL
AMES TEST
A PROCEDURE USING BACTERIA TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL CARCINOGENS