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114 Cards in this Set

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Fracastoro
1546 suggests that invisible organisms case disease
Jansen
1590 - 1608 develops the first compound microscope
Leeuwenhoek
1676 discovers "animacules"
Redi
1688 publishes work on spontaneous generation of maggots
Spallanzani
1765 - 1776 attacks spontaneous generation
Müller
1786 produces first classification of bacteria
Jenner
1798 introduces cowpox vaccination for smallpox
Schwann and Schleiden
1838 - 1839 proposed Cell Theory
Bassi
1835 - 1844 discovers silkworm disease caused by fungus and proposes that many diseases originate from microbial origin
Semmelweis
1847 - 1850 shows that childbed fever is transfered by physicians and introduces antiseptics to prevent disease
Snow
1849 studies the epidemiology of cholera epidemic in London
Pasteur
1857 lactic acid fermentation is due to microorganisms
Virchow
1858 states that all cells come from cells
Pasteur
1861 shows that microorganisms do not arise by spontaneous generation
Lister
1867 publishes work on antiseptic surgery
Miescher
1869 discovers neucleic acids
Koch
1876 - 1877 demonstrates that anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis
Laveran
1880 discovers Plasmodium, the cause of malaria
Koch
1881 cultures bacteria on gelatin
Pasteur
1881 develops anthrax vaccine
Koch
1882 discovers tubercle bacillus, Myobacterium tuberculosis
Koch's postulates
1884 first published
Methnikoff
1884 describes phagocytosis
autoclave developed
1884
gram stain developed
1884
Pasteur
1885 developes the rabies vaccine
Escherich
1885 discovers Eschericia coli, a cause of dirrhea
Fraenkel
1886 discovers Streptococcus pneumoniae, a cause for pneumonia
Petri
1887 developed the petri dish
Winogradsky
1887 - 1890 studies sulfer and nitrifying bacteria
Beijerinck
1889 isolates root nodule bacteria
Von Behring
1890 prepares antitoxins fotr diptheria and tetanus
Ivanowsky
1892 provides evidence fot a virus causation of tobacco mosaic disease
Kitasato and Yersin
1894 discover Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague
Bordet
1895 discovers complement
Van Ermengem
1896 discovers Clostridium botulinum, the cause of botulism
Buchner
1897 prepares extract of yeast that ferments
Ross
1897 shows that the malaria parasite is carried by the mosquito
Beijernck
1899 proves that a virus particle caused the tobacco mosaic disease
Reed
1900 proves that the yellow fever is transmitted by the mosquito
Landsteiner
1902 discovers blood groups
Wright and others
1903 discover antibodies in the blood of immunizes animals
Schaudinn and Hoffmann
1905 show that Treponema pallidum cause syphilis
Wasseremann
1906 developes complement fixation test for syphilis
Ricketts
1909 shows that Rocky Mountain spotted fever is transmitted by ticks and caused by a microbe (Rickettsia rickettsii
Ehrlich
1910 develops cherotherapeutic agent for syphilis
Rous
1911 discovers a virus that causes cancer in chickens
D'Herelle and Twort
1915 - 1917 discover bacterial viruses
Fleming
1921 discovers lysozyme
Bergey's manual
1923 first edition
Griffith
1928 discovers bacterial transformations
Fleming
1929 discovers penicillin
Van Niel
1931 shows that photosynthetic bacteria use reduced compounds as electron donors without producing oxygen
Ruska
1933 developes first transmission electron microscope
Stanly
1935 crystallizes the tobacco mosaic virus
Domagk
1935 discovers sulfa drugs
Chatton
1937 divides living organisms into procaryotes and eucaryotes
Beadle and Tatum
1941 proposed the one - gene - one -enzyme hypothosis
Avery
1944 shows that DNA carries information during transformation
Waksman
1944 discovers streptomycin
Lederberg and Tatum
1946 describe bacterial conjugation
Enders, Weller, and Robbins
1949 grow poliovirus in human tissue cultures
Lwoff
1950 induces lysogenic bacteriophages
Hershey and Chase
1952 show that bacteriophages inject DNA into host cell
Zinder and Lederberg
1952 Discover generalized transduction
Phase - contrast microscope
1953 developed
Medawar
1953 discovers immune tolerance
Watson and Crick
1955 propose the double helix structure of DNA
Jacob and Wollman
1955 discover the F factor is a plasmid
Jerne and Burner
1955 propose the clonal selection theory
Yalow
develops the radioimmunoassay technique
Jacob and Monod
1961 propose the operon model of gene regulation
Nirenberg, Khorana, and others
1961 - 1966 elucidate the genetic code
Porter
1962 proposes the basic structure for immunoglobulin G
First quinolone antimicrobial (nalidixic acid) synthesized
1962
Arber and Smith
1970 discover restriction endonucleases
Temin and Baltimore
1970 discovery of reverse transcriptasein retroviruses
ames
developes a bacterial assay for the detectioon of mutagens
Cohen, Boyer, Chang, and Helling
1973 used plasmid vectors to clone genes in bacteria
Kohler and Milstein
1975 develop techniques for the production of monoclonal antibodies
Lyme disease discovered
1975
Woese and Fox
1977 recognition of archea as a distinct microbial group
Gilbert and Sanger
1977 develop techniqued for DNA sequencing
Insulin synthesized using recombinant DNA techniques
1979
Smallpox declared official eliminated
1979
Scanning tunneling microscope
1980 developed
Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine
1982 developed
Cech and Altman
1982 - 1983 discovered catalytic RNA
Gallo and Mintagnier
1983 - 1984 Human immunodeficiency virus isolated
Mullis
1983 - 1984 polymerase chain reaction
First vacine produced by genetic engineering approved for human use
1986 hepatitus B vaccine
First human gene - therapy testing begun
1990
First human trials of antisense therapy
1992
Chickenpox vacciine approved fot U.S. use
1995
Haemophilus influenzae genome sequenced
1995
Methanococcus jannaschii genome sequenced
1996
Yeast genome sequenced
1996
Discovery of Thiomargarita namibiensis, the largest bacterium
1997
Escherichia coli genome sequenced
1997
Discovery that Vibro cholerae has two seperate chromosomes
2000
Infectious poliovirus synthesis from basic chemical buildiing blocks
2002
Genome of maleria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum sequenced
2002
Microbiology
the study of organisms which are to small to see Microorganisms
ecosystem
all the components of life living together
ecology
the science of the ecology also called bionomics
Spontaneous generation
livingn organisms can come from non - living material
four humors
blood, phlegm, yellow bile (cholor), and black bile (melancholy)
miasmas
poisonous vapors believed to cause disease
pèbrine disease
disease to the silkworm industry
Koch's Postulates
1. The microorganism must be present in every case of the disease but in the absent from healthy organisms
2. The suspect microorganisn must be isolated and grown in a pure culture
3. The same disease must result when the isolated microorganism is inoculated into a healthy host
4. The same microorganism must be isolated again from the diseased host
hypothosis
educated guess
theory
set of propositions and concepts that provide a reliable account of something in nature
prokaryotic
organisms with a non enclosed nucleus
eucaryotic cells
organisms which have a membrane bound neucleus