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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
T/F about neurons?
they are all classified as multipolar due to their numerous dendrites
T/F about neurons?
supporting cells are formed by fission of the perikaryon
T/F about neurons
their processes contain numerous microtubules and neurofilaments
T/F about neurons?
they produce the reticular fibers of the endoneurium
T/F about neurons?
when stimulated, they divide rapidly to form new neurons
lysosomes function in which of the following ways:
a) destruction of bacteria
b) degradation of worn-out or excess organelles
c) playing a role in the reabsorbtion of bone and secretion of thyroid hromones
d) a, b, c
e) a, c
all three are correct
a) form the glia limitans
b) are phagocytic
c) derive, in most cases, from astrocytes
d) are smaller, but much more numerous than oligoden.
d) make up most of the cells found in scar tissue in the cns
b) glia are phagocytic
at the peak of the AP described in class, which of the following gradients change(s) direction?
a) Na concentration grad
b) K concentration grad
c) negatively charged anion gradient
d) electrical gradient
e) all of the above
d) electrical gradient
the primary morph diff between a PNS neuron and a CNS neuron is that:
a) only CNS neurons have a lg euchromatic nuclei
c) only PNS neurons have neurofilaments, because axons must be several ft long
e) none of above
e) none of above
an experimental procedure that lowers the monomer concentration of actin in a cell will be most likely to directly:
a) cause increased endocytosis
b) increase number of actin microfilaments
c) cause microfilament depolarization
d) decrease the concentration of cytoplasmic Ca++
e) increase intermediate filament polymerization
c) cause microfilament depolymerization
check this one!
the primary site of action of signal peptidase is:
a) smooth ER
b) RER
C) the cis golgi network
d) the trans golgi network
e) vesicles that shuttle between cis- and trans-golgi network
b) RER, but need to verify
which one of the potentials is not electrotonic in nature?
c) AP
d) generator potential
e) receptor potential
c) AP
increasing which membrane parameter(s) will result in a faster AP conduction velocity?
a) length constant
b) time constant
c) both a and b
d) neither a or b
need to verify
which statement is false about how materials move in and out of cells?
a) materials can be taken up by cells via pinocytosis
b) lysosomes must synthesize all of the hydrolases that they contain since proteins cannot gain access to them by any other mech
c) materials such as proteins can move through nuclear pores by a mechanism called gated transport
d) substances synth by the RER can be transported from the RER lumen into the golgi apparatus using transport shuttle vesicles
e) prot can be transp across some cell memb such as those surr peroxisomes and mitochondria
b) lysosomes must synth
a neuron is stimulated with an elec impulse that depolarizes its membrane potential exactly to threshold for AP production. at this threshold stimulus level what are the directions and relative magnitudes of the Na and K currents elicited by the stim?
a) inward Na current is greater than the outward K current
b) inward Na current is less than the outward K current
c) outward Na current is greater than inward K current
d) inward Na current equal to outward K current
e) outward Na current is equal to inward K current
need to verify
muscle is surr by conn tissue layers. nerves and blood vessels are found in the conn tissue layer called the:
need to verify:
aren't blood vessels not found in the CT that surrounds muscle?
approx what % of a cell's total RNA consists of ribosomal RNA?
when a smooth muscle contracts
a) the degree of tension may have been influenced by elec or hormonal signals
b) troponin C binds Ca and the myosin binding site on the actin myofilament is exposed
c) the thick and thin myofilaments depolymerize thus becoming shorter
d) nucleus maintains its elongated shape b/c the nuclear lamins provide a stiff intranuclear matrix and prevent nucleus from changing shape
e) length of both sarcomere and I-band decreases
need to verify
in skeletal muscle a group of myofibers contracts at the same time because they:
a) are a syncytium
b) are all innervated by same neuron
c) are phys connected at the Z-line by intermediate filaments
d) communicate w/ each other through gap junctions
e) all of above
b) are all innervated by same neuron
which is true about peroxisomes?
a) contain some enzymes that generate hydrogen peroxide and others that destroy excess HP
c) inner membrane contains proteins involved in e transport
d) matrix has a pH optimum at about pH 5
e) microtubules of the cell radiate outward from peroxisomes found adj to nuc
a) contain enzymes that generate HP and destroy excess HP
mEPP produced by release of _____ into synaptic cleft
one synaptic vesicle
which follows linear kinetics
simple diffusion
what effect will addition of KCL to the inside of the typical cell have on its resting potential: (assume Cl does whatever is req'd to remain in equil and ignore any role of the NaK pump
hyperpolarization ??? or no change?
a super threshold stim is applied to a merkel disc located in a subj finger. what info reaches the SC that allows the cns to judge the amplitude of the applied stim?
a) generator potential amp
b) receptor pot amp
c) receptor pot freq
d) action pot amp
e) action pot freq
verify: ap freq?
how do you measure the magnitude of the stimulus from an intracell electrode?
frequency of AP's
simple diffusion and carrier mediated transport share what chars?
a) can be passive
b) follow saturation kinetics
c) req that oil to water partition coeff must be greater than 1
d) follow linear kinetics
e) indep of electrochem gradient of solute
a) can be passive
carrier mediated transp follows saturation kinetics, simple follows linear
which is true about cells?
a) invariably contain only one nucleus
b) all of internal cell memb attach directly to surface memb
c) all cell organelles are surr by single cell memb
d) molecular motor proteins can be involved with mvmt of vesicles along microtubules
d) molec motor proteins involved with mvmt of vesicles along micro tub (ribosomes don't have membranes)
what effect would adding NaA to external medium to increase ec Na concentration by X2 have on resting and action potential?
depends. won't affect amp of AP, but may sl depolarize resting memb pot
which is true about mitochondria?
a) enzymes involved in coupling of electron transp to ATP synthesis are only found in the outer mitochon membrane
b) DNA found in mito was transported into mitochon from nucleus
c) mitochon are specialized to contain acid hydrolases
d) cristae increase membrane surface are of the inner mitochon memb
e) all cells need energy so they have same number of mito per cell
d) cristae inc memb surf area of inner mitochon memb
EC recording:
velocity to right
- then + electrodes
draw oscilloscope tracing
upper defl first then lower defl
which ch in the membrane is resp for creating the resting pot in typical cell
non-gated K+ ch
which is true about nucleus?
a) it is surr by a metabolically active single cell memb
b) protein components of ribosomes are synthesized in a sp region of the nucleolus
c) nuclear lamins make up fibrous lamina that is found just inside nuc envelope
d) nuclei rich in heterochromatin are ext active in synthesis of ribosomal units
e) ribosomal precursors gain access to cytoplasm by vesicular transp mech
c) nuclear lamins
(no prot synth in heterochrom)
(no ves transp through nuc)
what is resp for repolarizing an unmyelinated axon back to resting pot during an AP
VG K+ ch
glycosaminoglycans are large molecules that are formed from
a) repeating disaccharide subunits
b) glycosylated proteins
c) RNA protein complexes
d) type III colagen
e) repeats of tetrapeptide proline-lysine-glycine-histidine
a) repeating disacch subunits
which of following organelles normally contain DNA?
a) mitochon and nucleus
b) peroxisomes and nucleus
c) mitochon and RER
d) nissl substance and RER
e) nucleus and transp vesicles
a) mitochon and nuc
which of following do NOT normally ferry material to lysosomes so that the contents can be digested within lysosomes?
a) phagosomes
b) autophagosomes
c) endocytotic vesicles
d) pinocytic vesicles
e) microbodies
e) microbodies
E(Na) = +66 mV
E (K) = -70 mV
E(Cl) = -60 mV
Em = -55 mV
threshold -45 mV
a postsyn potential is initiated in a typical CNS neuron at its resting pot by increasing postsyn memb permeability to chloride (Pcl). this permeability change will produce ____ by means of ____ chloride current in the postsyn cell
c) IPSP, inward
E(Na) = +66 mV
E (K) = -70 mV
E(Cl) = -60 mV
Em = -55 mV
threshold -45 mV

a postsyn potential is initiated in the CNS by closing a normally open K+ channel in the postsyn memb. this permeability change will produce ____ by _____ the outward K+ current in the postsyn cell
an EPSP.....decreasing
which is true about mitochon?
a) outer membrane sur mitochon contains enzymes involved in elec transport and coupling of electron transp to ATP synthesis
b) porin particles are found in the mitochon matrix and selectively bind to ca ions
c) cristae are folds of the outer mitochon memb that project into the cytoplasm
d) mitochondria in muscle cells are only found around nucleus
e) fcns of mitochon include synth of ATP and some steps in steroid hormone synthesis
need to verify (not a)
activit of Na+ K+ pump is regulated mainly by:
a) Na in
b) Na out
c) K in
d) K out
e) Ain
need to verify (not d)
what prevents AP from generating other AP's that propagate backwards from left to right?
Na VG channels are in refractory period (inactivated)
which of the following is not a process for uptake of material to be digested within lysosomes?
a) endocytosis
b) phagocytosis
c) autophagy
d) pinocytosis
e) mitosis
e) mitosis
which are of n. sums the cell's elec inputs and decides whether the cell fires an AP
initial or integrative segment of the axon (axon hillock)
a miniature end plat potential is due to the
a) release of one molec of ACh
b) opening of one postsyn receptor
c) release of one syn vesicle
d) rel of 200 syn vesicles
e) random opening of sev postsyn ch without rel of NT from presyn memb
c) rel of one syn vesicle
(2 molec are needed to open the channel)
during a single (twitch) contraction of a skel myofiber,
a) the rel of inorganic phosphate from the myosin head is a rate limiting step of the process
b) a nerve impulse causes rel of NE into syn cleft of the motor end plate
c) the interaction of actin and myosin is inhib by titin binding to the myosin
d) some of the sarcomeres contract while others in the same myofiber remain in relaxed conformation
e) myosin binds to actin and ATP at the same time
a) rel of inorg phosphate from myosin head is a rate lim step of process
if a memb is permeable to both Na and Cl, the memb pot is +60 mV, and nernst pot for both Na and Cl is -60 mV, which of the following pairs of fluxes should occur?
a) na efflux, cl influx
b) na efflux, cl efflux
c) na influx, cl influx
d) na influx, cl efflux
e) no flux of either b/c in equil
a) na efflux, cl influx
how are motor units recruited as the force a muscle produces increases?
a) CNS recruits a few large motor units to make up most of force and then recruits small units to fine tune amt of force generated
b) CNS inc number of muscle fibers in each MU to adjust amt of force generated
c) small motor units recruited at lowest forces adn remain recruited as larger MUs are recruited to inc muscle force
d) small MU recruited at lowest forces and fire con't as larger MUs recruited to increase muscle force
e) small MU recruited at lowest forces and drop out as larger MU take over force prod
c) small MU recruited at lowest forces and remain recruited while larger MUs recruited to inc muscle F
smooth muscle:
a) myosin forms highly ordered microfilaments that are conn to these dense bodies in cytoplasm
b) nuclei found near sarcolemma at periphery of cell
c) cells are fusiform shaped and can be linked to each other by gap junctions
d) contraction is inhib by rel of Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum
e) cells contain specialized NMJ's called motor end plates
c) cells are fusiform shaped and can be linked by GJ's

(a is cardiac, smooth muscle is not highly ordered)
(b is skeletal)
(e is skeletal)
golgi apparatus is
a) usually basal to nucleus in epithelial cells
b) rarely active in cells of muscle tiss
c) involved in add'n of carbs to var of proteins
d) site where core sugars made of mannose resuides added to nascent polypeptides
e) studded with ribosomes in cells that produce many secretory prot
c) involve with add'n of carbs to var of proteins
at NMJ endplate the EPP is produced by:
a) opening of separate receptor-gated ch in postsyn membrane for Na and K
b) opening of single class of receptor gated ch in postsyn membrane for Na only
c) opening of single class of R-gated ch in postsyn memb for K only
d) opening vg ch in postsyn memb for Na and K
e) opening of single class of receptor gated ch in postsyn memb for Na and K
e) single class for both Na and K
neural crest is origin of a diverse set of cells and tissues including:
a) most of PNS
b) lining of gastrointest tract
c)neurons of brain
d) smooth muscle of gut wall
e) strat squamous epithelium of epidermis
a) PNS
E(Na) = +120 mV
E(K) = -70 mV
E(cl) = -60 mV
Em = -55 mV (resting)
an IPSP would be prod by closing a single normally open ch in the memb that is permeable to:
a) Na
b) K
c) Cl
d) K and Cl
a) Na
which of following is char of EPSP?
a) all or none
b) propagation
c) sep Na and K ch
d) refractory pd
e) summation
e) summation
if Cl is initially in electrochem equil across memb and Na nernst pot is more positive than memb pot, an increase in EC Cl concentration will have what effect on memb pot, and the resulting change in memb pot will have what effect on Na influx?
a) hyperpolarization, inc in Na influx
b) hyperpol, dec in Na influx
c) depol, inc Na influx
d) depol, dec Na influx
e) no effect on memb pot or Na influx
a) hyper, inc Na influx
which is true about perioxsomes
a) catalase within perox destroys HP
b) perox (including both lg and small) are only found in liver, brain, kidney cells
c) perox are surr by 2 cell memb
d) perox enzymes are transp into perox by vesicular transport
a) catalase destroys HP
actin microfilaments are most likely found:
a) in centrosome, initiating formation of spindle
b) in contractile ring divinding daughter cells during cytokenesis
c) in central core of cilia
d) in reticular lamina underlying epithelial cells
e) as an integral component of connexons
b) in contractile ring dividing daughter cells during cytokinesis
which is false about syn transmission in n.?
a) although maj of syn in human rely on rel of chem, elec synapses can occur
b) a var of NT can function in various syn
c) rel of vesicles from presyn ending can stim a nerve impulse to be generated from postsyn surface
d) syn trans invariably results in formation of a nerve impulse
e) numerous syn can occur at any given n.
d) syn trans invar resuls in formation of n. impulse
select most acc statment about CNS:
a) meninges penetrate deeply into n. tissue, dragged inward along with major blood vessels
b) numerous tight junctions bet endothelial cells of CNS blood vessles constitute most impt fcnal component of BBB
c) fibroblasts of the pia send out numerous cytoplas extensions that meet astrocyte foot processes and thus form most impt structural component of connective tissue in CNS
d) CSF exits CNS via numerous lymphatics that course through arachanoid
e) perisoteum is another name for dura mater that is closely applied to bone of cranium and spinal cord
b) numerous tight junctions bet endothelial cells of cns blood vessels make BBB
when the typical cell is at resting pot of -90 mV, (no AP's syn pot, etc) Na leaks ______ and K leaks ____ the cell
Na leaks into
K leaks out of
an end plate potential at NMJ is produced by inc permeability of the muscle cell memb to :
a) Na only
b) K only
c) ACh only
d) K and Na
e) Na, K, and ACh
d) Na and K
2 ACh molec bind to alpha subunits of receptor, opens ionic ch which move the Na and K
choose most acc stmt:
a) sk muscle cells surr, individually, by a basal lamina
b) in adult, cardiac muscle cells are able to divide in response to injury
c) sk muscle fibers are connected by gap junctions
d) smooth muscle cells contain sarcomeres
e) in skel muscle, myosin binds to actin in the absence of Ca
need to verify
which of the following is true about glia:
a) astroglia surr nerve cell bodies in autonomic ganglia
b) they prov support, elec insulation, and or aid in metab exchange for n. they are assoc with
c) schwann c are found in assoc with myelinated n. but not with unmyl ones
d) they are formed by div of pre-existing n.
e) form epineurim
b) provide supp elec insul and or aid in metab exch
(schwann cells endoneurium?)
ependymal cells:
a) line the central canal of the SC as well as form surfaces of arachnoid villi
b) ahve motile cilia on apical surf (except for the ependymal cells of choroid plexus)
c) synthesize type IV collagen fibers bound in bet all glial cells of cns
d) cover capillaries that penetrate cns
e) joined tog by tight junctions (except for ependymal cells of choroid plexus)
a) line central canal of SC and form surf of arach villi
(they have microvilli on apical surf)
anterograde mvmt of organelles in axonal processes is most dir due to:
a) mvmt gen by kinesin in assoc with mictotubules
b) ap produced by influx of K
c) stim of myosin by inc Ca levels
d) site specific polymerization of microtubules
e) pot energy diff bet perikarryon and end of axon
a) mvmt generated by kinesin in assoc with microtubules
which of following is embryolog source of schw cells?
a) notochord
b) neural tube
c) paraxial mesoderm
d) neural crest
e) ectodermal placodes
neural crest
the actin-myosin syst in non-muscle cells differs from that in skeletal muscle in tha
a) no non-muscle cells contain tropomyosin
b) myosin in non-muscle cells is activated by phosphorylation by spec enzymes called kinases
c) actin-myosin activity in non-muscle cells is insensitive to intracellular ca
d) in non-muscle cells, vimentin, rather than alpha-actinin, anchors actin filaments
e) actin-myosin of non-muscle cells cannot gen force or mvmt
e) actin-myosin of non muscle cells cannot gen force/mvmt
which is not true about mitochon?
a) they have only a single unit membrane
b) involved in prod of Atp
c) contain circular DNA that encodes for certain mitochon RNAs
d) present in all cells except mature RBCs
e) have cristae that serve to inc memb area of organelle
a) they actually have a double membrane
which of the following is part of autonomic nervous syst?
a) nerve cell bodies loc in wall of intesting
b) motor end plates
c) purkinje cells in cereb
d) pacinian corpuscles in finger
e) all of above
a) nerve cell bodies in wall of intest
peroxisomes would be expected to contain which of the following subst?
a) DNA, RNA, and enzymes nec to synth prot
b) DNA but not RNA so they can not synth prot
c) enzymes used in citric acid cycle
d) var of acid hydrolases
e) catalase and var of oxidases
e) catalase and var of ox
actin-myosin syst in non-muscle cells differs from that in sk muscle in that:
a) no non-muscle cells contain tropomyosin
b) myosin in non-muscle cells is activated by phosphorylation by spec enzymes called kinases
c) actin-myosin activity in non-musc cells is insensitive to intrac. Ca
d) in non-muscle cells vimentin, rather than alpha actinin anchors the actin filaments
e) actin-myosin of non-muscle cells cannot gen force/movement
e) can't gen force or mvmt
which of following organelles do not contain microtubules as a major struct element?
a) basal bodies
b) centrioles
c) mitotic spindles
d) cilia
e) microvilli
microvilli---- microfilaments
which of following would least likely be located in region of axon synapse?
a) mitochon
b) vesicles containing NT
c) microtubules
d) cisternae of RER
e) all of above would be found
d) cisternae of RER
which of following enzymes is found in lysosomes?
a) ATP synthetase
b) catalase
c) urate oxidase
d) glycosyl transferaseses
e) proteases, lipases, glycosidases
e) proteases, lipases, glycosidases
which of following stmts concerning intermediate filaments is FALSE?
a) intermed fil can be either very stable or labile
b) lamins are intermed fil proteins that form part of nuclear skeleton
c) intermed fil contract in resp to elevated levels of cytoplasmic ATP
d) vimentin forms non-polar filaments
e) glial cells contain intermed fil different from those found in n.
c) contract in response to elev levels of cytopl ATP
a) have 2 subunits, each of which contains one or more sp of RNA and more than 20 distinct prot
b) bind to membranes of rough ER via specific binding domain on S16 protein of small subunit
c) only participate in synth of glycoprot if large subunit has a core segment of 6 mannose residues attached to it
d) are prod in cis-golgi region
e) move along mRNA with energy prov by a dynein motor prot
????? (think it's not d or e)
a) consist of small and large subunits both of which contain specific prot and RNAs
b) bound to memb of RER contain a diff set of prot than do ribosomes "free" in cytopl
c) localized to nucleolus synth the protein needed to make new ribosomes
d) traverse the memb of cis-golgi saccules to synth most glycoprot
e) localized in mitochon and perox contain only a lg subunit, as is the case for most bacterial ribosomes
a) consist of sm and lg subunits, containing spec prot and RNAs
which of following is fcn of peroxisomes?
a) digestion of ingested bacteria
b) destruction of areas of cytopl no longer needed by cell
c) breakdown of HP formed in cell by var chem rxns
d) formation of actin arrays rel to cell mvmt
e) lysis of basal lamina
c) breakdown of HP (by catalase) actually gen HP also
which of following is most acc match of an organelle with est size?
a) nuclear pore -- 1 micrometer in dia
b) actin microfilament -- 15-20 nanometers in dia
c) mitochon --- 1-8 microm in length
d) small ribosomal subunit -- .1 micrometer in dia
e) axonene of cilia -- 25 nm in dia
c) mitochon (1 to 7 microm long)
actin microfil is 5-7 nm in dia
sm subunit listed is greater than entire thing
choose best to describe sk muscle:
a) sk muscle c. contain multiple nuclei per cell b/c cytokinesis did not occur aftter karyokinesis
b) cytopl of muscle cells is deeply basophilic due to large aggregates of RSR
c) sk muscle cells each contain only one myofibril per cell
d) sk muscle c. bound together by intercalculated discs
e) n. and specific sk muscle fibers it innervates is called a motor unit
e) motor unit
two mech by which intracell Ca is maintained low rel to EC Ca concentration are:
a) diffusion of Ca through memb ch and diffusion of Ca directly through lipid bilayer of memb
b) maintenance of Ca Gibbs donnan equil and complete imperm of memb to Ca
c) existence of large elec and chem grad for efflux of Ca
d) primary active transport of Ca and secondary active Na/Ca exchange
e) passive facilitated diffusion of Ca and negative memb pot
d) primary active transp of Ca and cotransport of Na and Ca
which of following stmts true about plasma memb surr cell?
a) plasma memb can be resolved as a single dense line using light microscope
b) althoug memb surr cell organelles differ in molec struct, plasma memb surr cell always has same kind and amts of lipids and prot
c) trilaminar appearance of unit mem as seen in electron microscope is due to deposition of osmium on hydrophilic groups of the lipid bilayer
d) memb is primarly composed of bilayer of prot molec
e) oligosaccharide chains project out from prot at both extracell and intracell memb surfaces
c) trilaminar appearance due to osmium on hydrophillic groups of lipid bilayer
rapid depol during upstroke after threshold is prod by inc memb permeab. by about a factor of 1000
a) to Na
b) to K
c) to Cl
d) equally to Na and K
e) equally to Na and Cl
to sodium
when cariac muscle contracts, the
a) A band of sarcomere widens
b) I band of sarcomere widens
c) A band of sarcomere narrows
d) I band of sarcomere narrows
e) myofilaments shorten in length
d) I band of sarc narrows
ENa = -60 mV
EK = +50 mV
ECl = -70 mV
have same anion as we do and its conc is high on inside of cell. resting pot for alien is -60 mV. threshold is -40 mV.
what are relative conc of Na, K, Cl in the alien cell?
a) Na and Cl high outside, K high inside
b) Na and K high outside, Cl high inside
c) Na and K high inside, Cl high outside
d) K and Cl high outside, Na high inside
e) Na, K, Cl all high outside
d) K and Cl high outside, Na high inside
Ena = =-60
EK = +50
ECl = -70
Em resting = -60
thresh -40
which ions are at equil in the alien cell?
a) Na
b) K
c) Cl
d) A-
e) none
a) Na
Ena = =-60
EK = +50
ECl = -70
Em resting = -60
thresh -40
in alien cell, which dir is Cl moving across membrane when cel at resting pot?
a) inward
b) outward
c) no net current
a) inward
Ena = =-60
EK = +50
ECl = -70
Em resting = -60
thresh -40
what effect will inc ext Na conc have on resting pot of alien cell?
a) hyper
b) depol
c) no effect
b) depol
select most acc stmt
a) axons contain ribosomes, so the extensive prot biosynth req'd for axonal tranport can be maintained
b) syn ves are not synth/prod in presyn nerve terminal, rather they are transp from cell body by axonal transp
c) each n. has mult axons to ensure neuron prop signal to as many postsyn cells as poss
d) dendrites are myelinated
e) fcn of dend spines is to inc presyn surface for syn es fusion leading to NT rel
b) syn vesicles are synth then transported
if a cell has a pos memb pot and EC conc of a solute X greater than its internal conc, which of following stmet NOT true?
a) X is a neutral solute (non ionized) and not in chem equil
b) X is an anion which is electrochem equil
c) x is a cation which is not in equil
d) active transport of X is taking place
e) membrane is impermeable to X
b) x is an anion which is in electrochem equil
what is a motor unit?
a) an alpha motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
b) group of muscle fibers innervated by sev alpha motor neurons working tog for production of muscle force
c) all of muscle fibrils in a single muscle fiber
d) sarcoplasmic reticulum, terminal cisternae, T-tubule system of a muscle fiber
e) muscle spindle, golgi tendon organ, assoc alpha motor neurons
a) alpha motor neuron and all muscle fibers it innervates
waving motion of cilia and flagella dependent on:
a) depolymerization of microtubules
b) changes in config of dynein
c) hydrolysis of GTP by cental pair of microtubules
d) incomplete coverage of axoneme by plasma memb
e) actin-myosin interactions
b) changes in config of dynein
which of following ch is respon for rapid depolarization at start of upstroke of ap?
a) non gated Na ch
b) non gated K ch
c) VG Na ch
d) VG K ch
e) VG Ca ch
c) VG Na ch
alien frog:
Ek= +50
Kna = -65
Ecl = -80
Em = -65
which if any ions in alien frog are in equil?
a) Na
b) K
c) Cl
d) K, Cl, and Na
e) none
a) Na
alien frog:
Ek= +50
Kna = -65
Ecl = -80
Em = -65
with the alien memb at restin pot of -65 mV in which directions are net Na and net Cl currents flowing across cell memb?
a) no Na current cl inward
b) Na inward cl inward
c) Na inward cl outward
d) Na outward cl inward
e) Na outward cl outward
a) no Na current, cl inward
alien frog:
Ek= +50
Kna = -65
Ecl = -80
Em = -65
with the alien memb at resting pot of -65, increasing memb permeability to which of following ions will produce depolarization?
a) Na only
b) K only
c) Cl only
d) both Na and Cl
e) none of the above will prod depolar
e) none of above