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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Processes of the body occurring at the cellular level
absorption of metabolites
elimination of wastes
How do cells specialize for different functions?
They go through differentiation
what is the pathway of cell differentiation?
Zygote --> blastomeres of inner cell mass (ES cells) --> All cells of the body
Define cytoplasm
Everything inside the plasma membrane excluding the nucleus
What are the types of organelles?
Membranous and Non-membranous
What are inclusions, and give examples?
Inclusions are structures that formed from metabolic processes of cells. Lipofuscin, Hemosiderin, Glocogen granules, Lipid inclusions, crystalline inclusions.
Describe the cystoplasmic matrix
it is the largest single compartment of most cells, contains enzymes, and is the site of protein synthesis, contains network of strands and crosslinkers that form the cytoskeleton
What are integral membrane proteins?
They are proteins that are embedded in the membrane.
What are 6 classes of integral membrane proteins?
Linkers proteins
Structural proteins
what is a specific example of a targeting mechanism for endocytosis?
vSNARE and tSNARE. vSNARE proteins on the vesicle interact with tSNARE proteins on the target membrane, ensuring that endocytic vesicles go to the correct compartment.
What are 3 mechanisms of endocytosis?
1. Pinocytosis (clath ind)
2. Phagocytosis (clath ind)
3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis (clath dep)
What is phagocytosis?
Consumption of cells/debris called phagosomes. Generally Fc mediated. Can be triggered by TLR (toll-like receptors) which are triggered by PAMPS (pathogen-associated molecular patterns). It is Clath indepdent but actin-dependent.
what is Adaptin?
Protein that helps select and target clathrin to receptors
What does dynamin do?
It mediates the release of clathrin-coated vesicles to the inside of the cell.
What are the 2 pathways of exocystosis?
Constitutive pathway, Regulated secretory pathway
What is the regulated secretory pathway?
1) Cells concentrate proteins and store them transiently in secretory vesicles.
2) Regulatory event induces Ca2+ influx that stimulates release of vesicles to fuse with the membrane
What are early endosomes?
Membrane-bound vesicles found near the plasma membrane. They sort and recycle proteins internalized by endocytic pathways.
What are late endosomes?
These are endosomes that have moved deeper into the cytoplasm and develop into lysosomes.
How do endosomes become lysosomes?
They receive a enzymes that break down materials in the endosome. The enzyme is Mannose 6 phosphate. M6P receptors on the endosome pick it the enzyme.
What are four possible fates of the receptor-ligand complexes sorted in the early endosome?
1. receptor recycled ligand degraded
2. receptor and ligand both recycled
3. receptor and ligand both degraded
4. transcytosis