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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
extracellular matrix
in animals tissues

material of hetero comp surrounding cells
--- many func including adhesion of cells---

high carbs

communication from proteins to matrix b/c cytoskeleton
wayz to get in/out of cell other than diffusion

cell eating

take klarge food particles into vacuoles

how single cell (amoeba) gets food
wayz to get in/out of cell other than diffusion
receptor-mediated endocytosis
wayz to get in/out of cell other than diffusion

cellular drinking

in aq solution

receptor-mediated endocytosis
wayz to get in/out of cell other than diffusion

receptor protein

cell has coat protein absorbs molecules and -->es vesicle

endocytosis sstarted by macromolecular binding to a specific membrane protein

invagintation of plsma membrane into cell
cell communicates how?
tight junctions
gap junction
cell communicates: tight junction
form of cell communication

belt, prevents slipping b/t cell membranes

animal cell

hold adjacent cells together --> organ/elle, junction


junc b/t epithelial cells

big protein component on either side

animal cells

kertain fiber

allows transport

connects cells, communication in gap
gap junction
protein hydrophil lchannels

allows easy transport
closeness of channels ->es increased ability transport

2 animal cells

allows chem subs/elec sigs pass cell to cell
bond energies used for ?
estimate E changes
kinetic/potential E
energy of motion

stored E
kinds of E
all used in living systems

radiant- emitted in rays, inversely proportional to wavelength

longer wavelength < E than shorter wavelength

chemical - breaking bonds -> E

mechanical - bending, muscle contractions

electrical -

atomic- not directly used by living sys
exergonic reaction
energy flow

-> freeE

cell resp
endergonic rxn
energy flow

consumes free E
--active transport
--cell movements
structure ATP
3 Pi groups, ribose, adenine

*3 Pi groups -> ATP can dontae E to chem group when Pi hydrolyzed
- Pi's --> unstable,
(tend to resonate when individs)

* resonance inhibition - resonce moles = > stable, double bonds ex benzine

less resonance < stable

ATP changes to Pi, can't resonate, allows to break apart and form E

ATP -> ADP + Pi + 8 kcal
ADP -> AMP + Pi + 4kcal
AMP -> AM + Pi + 2kcal

therefore, more Pi on mol's = > E

4 or 5 Pi -> unstable
resonance inhibition
in energy flow structure of ATP

resonce moles = > stable, double bonds ex benzine

less resonance < stable
1st law thermodynamics
can change one form E to another

entropy increases free E decreases

E not -->ed/destroyed

2nd law thermo
universe = entropy increases

we constantly have need for E
changes in Gibbs free E
usable E in system

change G - --> change is spontaneous, don't put E in

change G + --> not spontaneous,need put E in

change G 0 --> equilib

change G prime - stand free E, change under stand conditions

predict if rxns are favorable
all biochem rxns in cell

100s to 1000s

unity b/c metabolic pathways
breaking things down

--macromols --> monosacs, a. acids, glycerol, f. acids

oxidative - degraded mol's lose E
building up, putting together


reductive - reduced mol's used, E required

monosacs, a. acids, f. acids, glycerol --> macromols
3 major biological processes for ATP formation
1. substrate level phosphorylation

2. oxidative phosphorylation

3. photosynthetic phosphorylation
major biological processes for ATP formation: photosynthetic phosphorylation
ATP mae in cholorplast of plants using E of sunlight

cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation
major biological processes for ATP formation: oxidative phosphorylation
ATP made in mitochon w/ O
as reduced mol's are oxidized

electron transport systems

transport e-s
major biological processes for ATP formation: substrate level phosphorylation
ATP directly made when substarte converted to a product


making ATP on spot
removal of elecs
addition O
removal H


takes away E from mol's

ex wood --> ashe
addition electrons
additon hydrogen
removal oxygen

puts E into mol's
electrons OR rxns
Ae + B -> A + Be
e donor
e acceptor
e removed (oxi)
e added to B

* -> >er E than before
OR Rns: O
A + BO2 --> AO2 + B
oxidized reduc
o +ed -----------------------------O remov
____ central metabolic activity found in all living organisms;

what is its purpose?
Kreb Cycle

-->tion ATP
capacity to do work

CHANGE E for biosystems
What is Gibbs Free Energy?
the E in system that can do work
resonance gives ___ to molecules