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34 Cards in this Set

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extracellular matrix
in animals tissues

material of hetero comp surrounding cells
--- many func including adhesion of cells---

high carbs

communication from proteins to matrix b/c cytoskeleton
phagocytosis
wayz to get in/out of cell other than diffusion

cell eating

take klarge food particles into vacuoles

how single cell (amoeba) gets food
wayz to get in/out of cell other than diffusion
phagocytosis
pinocytosis
receptor-mediated endocytosis
pinocytosis
wayz to get in/out of cell other than diffusion

cellular drinking

in aq solution

vesicle
receptor-mediated endocytosis
wayz to get in/out of cell other than diffusion

receptor protein

cell has coat protein absorbs molecules and -->es vesicle

endocytosis sstarted by macromolecular binding to a specific membrane protein

invagintation of plsma membrane into cell
cell communicates how?
tight junctions
desmosome
gap junction
cell communicates: tight junction
form of cell communication

belt, prevents slipping b/t cell membranes

animal cell

hold adjacent cells together --> organ/elle, junction

NO GAP

junc b/t epithelial cells

MUSCLE WHITE WEB
desmosome
big protein component on either side

animal cells

kertain fiber

allows transport

connects cells, communication in gap
gap junction
protein hydrophil lchannels

allows easy transport
closeness of channels ->es increased ability transport

2 animal cells

allows chem subs/elec sigs pass cell to cell
bond energies used for ?
estimate E changes
kinetic/potential E
energy of motion

stored E
kinds of E
all used in living systems

radiant- emitted in rays, inversely proportional to wavelength

longer wavelength < E than shorter wavelength

chemical - breaking bonds -> E

mechanical - bending, muscle contractions

electrical -

atomic- not directly used by living sys
exergonic reaction
energy flow

-> freeE

cell resp
catabolism
endergonic rxn
energy flow

consumes free E
--active transport
--cell movements
--anabolism
structure ATP
3 Pi groups, ribose, adenine

*3 Pi groups -> ATP can dontae E to chem group when Pi hydrolyzed
- Pi's --> unstable,
(tend to resonate when individs)

* resonance inhibition - resonce moles = > stable, double bonds ex benzine

less resonance < stable

ATP changes to Pi, can't resonate, allows to break apart and form E

ATP -> ADP + Pi + 8 kcal
ADP -> AMP + Pi + 4kcal
AMP -> AM + Pi + 2kcal

therefore, more Pi on mol's = > E

BUT
4 or 5 Pi -> unstable
resonance inhibition
in energy flow structure of ATP

resonce moles = > stable, double bonds ex benzine

less resonance < stable
1st law thermodynamics
can change one form E to another

entropy increases free E decreases

E not -->ed/destroyed

* E CONSTANT*
2nd law thermo
universe = entropy increases

we constantly have need for E
changes in Gibbs free E
usable E in system

change G - --> change is spontaneous, don't put E in

change G + --> not spontaneous,need put E in

change G 0 --> equilib

change G prime - stand free E, change under stand conditions

predict if rxns are favorable
metabolism
all biochem rxns in cell

100s to 1000s

unity b/c metabolic pathways
catabolism
breaking things down

degradative
--macromols --> monosacs, a. acids, glycerol, f. acids

oxidative - degraded mol's lose E
anabolism
building up, putting together

synthetic

reductive - reduced mol's used, E required

monosacs, a. acids, f. acids, glycerol --> macromols
3 major biological processes for ATP formation
1. substrate level phosphorylation

2. oxidative phosphorylation

3. photosynthetic phosphorylation
major biological processes for ATP formation: photosynthetic phosphorylation
ATP mae in cholorplast of plants using E of sunlight

cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation
major biological processes for ATP formation: oxidative phosphorylation
ATP made in mitochon w/ O
as reduced mol's are oxidized

electron transport systems

transport e-s
major biological processes for ATP formation: substrate level phosphorylation
ATP directly made when substarte converted to a product

glycolysis

making ATP on spot
oxidation
removal of elecs
addition O
removal H

burning

takes away E from mol's

ex wood --> ashe
reduction
addition electrons
additon hydrogen
removal oxygen

puts E into mol's
electrons OR rxns
Ae + B -> A + Be
e donor
e acceptor
e removed (oxi)
e added to B
(reduced)

* -> >er E than before
OR Rns: O
A + BO2 --> AO2 + B
oxidized reduc
o +ed -----------------------------O remov
____ central metabolic activity found in all living organisms;

what is its purpose?
Kreb Cycle

-->tion ATP
Energy
capacity to do work

CHANGE E for biosystems
What is Gibbs Free Energy?
the E in system that can do work
resonance gives ___ to molecules
stability