• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/325

Click to flip

325 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ankyl/o
stiff joint
arthr/o
joint
articul/o
joint
burs/o
sac
carp/o
wrist
cervic/o
neck
chondr/o
cartilage
clavicul/o
clavicle
coccyg/o
coccyx
cortic/o
outer portion
cost/o
rib
crani/o
skull
femor/o
femur
fibul/o
fibula
humer/o
humerus
ili/o
ilium
ischi/o
ischium
kyph/o
hump
lamin/o
lamina, part of vertebra
lord/o
bent backwards
lumb/o
loin
mandibul/o
mandible
maxill/o
maxilla
medull/o
inner portion
metacarp/o
metacarpals
metatars/o
metatarsals
myel/o
bone marrow, spinal cord
orth/o
straight
oste/o
bone
patell/o
patella (knee)
ped/o
child, foot
pelv/o
pelvis
phalang/o
phalanges
pod/o
foot
pub/o
pubis
radi/o
radius
sacr/o
sacrum
scapul/o
scapula
scoli/o
crooked, bent
spondyl/o
vertebrae
stern/o
sternum
synovi/o
synovial membrane
tars/o
ankle
thorac/o
chest
tibi/o
tibia
uln/o
ulna
vertebr/o
vertebra
-blast
immature, embryonic
-clasia
to surgically break
-desis
stabilize, fuse
-listhesis
slipping
-porosis
porous
___ is the site of blood cell production
Bone marrow
A ___ is the place where two bones meet and are held together by ___
joint
ligaments
Bones, also called ___ are one of the hardest materials in the body
osseous tissue
Bones are formed from a gradual process beginning before birth called ___
ossification
The fetal skeleton is formed from a ___ model
cartilage
Immature bone cells are called ___, the mature into ___
osteoblasts
osteocytes
What are the 4 categories of bone?
long bone
short bone
flat bone
irregular bone
The central shaft of long bones is called the ___, the wide ends are called the ___
diaphysis
epiphysis
Each epiphysis of long bone is covered by a layer of cartilage called ___ to prevent bone from rubbing directly on bone.
articular cartilage
The thin connective tissue membrane that covers bone is called the ___, which contains numerous blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels
periosteum
The dense and hard exterior surface bone is called ___ or ___ bone
cortical or compact
___ or ___ bone is found inside the bone
Cancellous or spongy
The spaces in cancellous bone contain ___
red bone marrow
The center of the diaphysis contains an open canal called the ___, which contains ___
medullary cavity
yellow bone marrow
The general term for any bony projection is a ___
process
A large smooth ball-shaped end on a long bone. it may be separated from the body or shaft of the bone by a narrow area called the neck
head
A smooth rounded portion at the end of a bone
condyle
A projection located above or on a condyle
epicondyle
A large rough process for the attachment of a muscle
trochanter
A small, rough process that provides the attachment for tendons and muscles
tubercle
A large, rough process that provides the attachment of tendons and muscles
tuberosity
A hollow cavity within a bone
sinus
A smooth round opening for nerves and blood vessels
foramen
A shallow cavity or depression on the surface of a bone
fossa
A slit-type opening on a bone
fissure
What are the 2 divisions of the human skeleton?
appendicular skeleton
axial skeleton
The head or skull is divided into two parts consisting of the ___ and ___
cranium
facial bones
A single U-shaped bone suspended in the neck between the mandible and larynx
hyoid bone
The trunk of the body consists of the (3 areas)
vertebral column
sternum
rib cage
What are the 5 sections of the vertebral or spinal column?
cervical vertebrae
thoracic vertebrae
lumbar vertebrae
sacrum
coccyx
Located between each pair of vertebrae, from the cervical through the lumbar regions, is an ___
invertebral disc
The rib cage has ___ pairs of ribs attached at the back to the vertebral column. ___ of the pairs are also attached to the sternum in the front. The lowest 2 pairs are called ___ and are attached only to the vertebral column
12
10
floating ribs
Facial bone: upper jaw (2)
maxilla
Facial bone: lower jaw
mandible
Vertebrae in the neck region (7 bones)
cervical vertebra
Vertebrae in the chest region with ribs attached (12 bones)
thoracic vertebra
Vertebrae in the small of the back, about waist level (5 bones)
lumbar vertebra
Five vertebrae that become fused into one triangular-shaped flat bone at the base of the vertebral column (1 bone)
sacrum
Three to five very small vertebrae attached to the sacrum, often become fused (1 bone)
coccyx
Wrist bones
carpals
Long curved, horizontal bone directly above the first rib
clavicle or collarbone
The thigh bone
femur
One of the 2 bones of the lower leg, lateral to and smaller in diameter than the tibia
fibula
The bone of the upper arm, from the elbow to the shoulder joint where it articulates with the scapula
humerus
The uppermost of the 3 bones that make up the hip bone
ilium
The hip bone. It consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubis and unites with the sacrum and coccyx to form the pelvis
innominate bone
One of the 3 parts of the hip bone, which joins the ilium and the pubis to form the acetabulum
ischium
The legs and feet
lower extremities
The bones in the middle part of the hand
metacarpals
The bones in the middle part of the foot
metatarsals
Another name for the innominate bone/hip bone
os coxae
The bone at the front of the knee joint
patella
The clavicle bone and the scapula bone
pectoral girdle
The ilium, pubis, and ischium
pelvic girdle
The finger bones
phalanges
The pubic bone
pubis
One of the outer, shorter bones of the forearm lying parallel to the ulna and partially revolving around it
radius
One of the pair of large flat triangular bones that forms the dorsal part of the shoulder girdle
scapula
The 7 bones that make up the posterior part of the foot
tarsals
The 2nd longest bone of the skeleton, located in the lower leg, it is the thicker bone
tibia
The bone on the medial or little finger side of the forearm, laying parallel with the radius
ulna
The arm, hand and finger bones
upper extremities
What are the 4 areas of the appendicular skeleton?
pectoral girdle
upper extremities
pelvic girdle
lower extremities
Joints are formed when 2 or more bones meet. This is referred to as ___
articulation
What are the 3 types of joints?
synovial joints
cartilaginous joints
fibrous joints
Most joints are freely moving ___ joints, which are enclosed by an elastic ___
synovial
joint capsule
The joint capsule is lined with ___ which secretes ___ to lubricate the joint
synovial membrane
synovial fluid
Some synovial joints contain a ___, which is a saclike structure composed of connective tissue and lined with synovial membrane
bursa
___ joints allow almost no movement.
Fibrous
___ joints allow for slight movement but hold bones firmly in place
Cartilaginous
The mass of bone tissue that forms at a fracture site during its healing
callus
Application of a solid material to immobilize an extremity or portion of the body as a result of a fracture, dislocation, or severe injury
cast
Healthcare profession concerned with diagnosis and treatment of malalignment conditions of the spine and musculoskeletal system with the intention of affecting the nervous system and improving health
chiropractic
The noise produced by bones or cartilage rubbing together in conditions such as arthritis
crepitation
A bone spur
exostosis
Abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine. Also known as hunchback or humpback
kyphosis
Abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine. Also known as swayback
lordosis
Branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions of the musculoskeletal system
orthopedics
A brace or splint used to prevent or correct deformities
orthotic
Healthcare profession specializing in diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the feet and lower legs
podiatry
Artificial device that is used as a substitute for a body part that is either congenitally missing or absent as a result of accident or disease
prosthesis
Healthcare profession specializing in making artificial body parts
prosthetics
Fracture of bone in which there is no open skin wound
closed fracture or simple fracture
A common type of wrist fracture
Colles' fracture
Fracture in which the bone is shattered, splintered, or crushed into many small pieces or fragments
comminuted fracture
Fracture in which the skin has been broken through to the fracture
compound fracture or open fracture
Fracture involving loss of height of a vertebral body. It may be the result of trauma, but in older persons, esp. women, ti may be caused by conditions like osteoporosis
compression fracture
A broken bone
fracture
Fracture in which there is an incomplete break; one side of the bone is broken and the other side is bent. This type of fracture is commonly found in children due to their softer and more pliable bone structure
greenstick fracture
Fracture in which bone fragments are pushed into each other
impacted fracture
Fracture at an angle to the bone
oblique fracture
Fracture caused by diseased or weakened bone
pathologic fracture
Fracture in which the fracture line spirals around the shaft of the bone
spiral fracture
A slight fracture caused by repetitive low-impact forces, like running, rather than a single forceful impact
stress fracture
Complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone
transverse fracture
Malignant growth found in the shaft of long bones that spreads through the periosteum.
Ewing's sarcoma
The most common type of bone cancer. Usually begins in osteocytes found at the ends of long bones
osteogenic sarcoma
Softening of the bones caused by a deficiency of calcium. It is thought that in children the cause is insufficient sunlight and vitamin D
osteomalacia
Decrease in bone mass that results in a thinning and weakening of the bone with resulting fractures. The bone becomes more porous, esp. in the spine and pelvis
osteoporosis
A fairly common metabolic disease of the bone from unknown causes. It usually attacks middle-aged and elderly people and is characterized by bone destruction and deformity
Paget's disease
Deficiency in calcium and vitamin D found in early childhood that results in bone deformities, especially bowed legs
rickets
inflammatory spinal condition that resembles rheumatoid arthirits. Results in gradual stiffening and fusion of the vertebrae. More common in men than women
ankylosing spondylitis
Herniation or protrusion of an intervertebral disk
herniated nucleus pulposus
Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
scoliosis
Congenital anomaly that occurs when a vertebra fails to fully form around the spinal cord
spina bifida
Narrowing of the spinal canal causing pressure on the cord and nerves
spinal stenosis
The forward sliding of a lumbar vertebra over the vertebra below it
spondylolisthesis
Specifically refers to ankylosing of the spine, but commonly used in reference to any degenerative condition of the vertebral column
spondylosis
Injury to the bones in the cervical spine as a result of a sudden movement forward and backward of the head and neck
whiplash
inflammation of the bursa of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (base of the big toe)
bunion
Occurs when the bones in a joint are displaced from their normal alignment and the ends of the bones are no longer in contact
dislocation
Arthritis resulting in degeneration of the bones and joints, esp. those bearing weight
osteoarthritis
Chronic form of arthritis with inflammation of the joints, swelling, stiffness, pain, and changes in the cartilage that can result in crippling deformities; considered to be an autoimmune disease
rheumatoid arthritis
Damage to the ligaments surrounding a joint due to overstretching, but no dislocation of the joint or fracture of the bone
sprain
An incomplete dislocation, the joint alignment is disrupted, but the ends of the bones remain in contact
subluxation
Chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of connective tissue affects many systems that may include joint pain and arthritis. May be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis
systemic lupus erythematosus
Congenital deformity causing misalignment of the ankle joint and foot. Also referred to as a clubfoot
talipes
Visualization of a joint by radiographic study after injection of a contrast medium into the joint space
arthrography
A nuclear medicine procedure in which the patient is given a radioactive dye and then scanning equipment is used to visualize bones
bone scan
measurement of bone density using a low dose x-ray for the purpose of detecting osteoporosis
dual-energy absorptiometry
Study of the spinal column after injecting opaque contrast material; particularly useful in identifying herniated nucleus pulposus pinching a spinal nerve
myelography
A diagnostic imaging procedure using x-rays to study the internal structure of the body; esp. useful for visualizing bones and joints
radiography
Examination of the interior of a joint by entering the joint with an arthroscope containing a small tv camera
arthroscopy
Partial or complete removal of a limb
amputation
Performing a surgical procedure while using an arthroscope to view the internal structure, such as a joint
arthroscopic surgery
Piece of bone taken from the patient used to take the place of a removed bone or a bony defect at another site
bone graft
Removal of the bursa at the joint of the great toe
bunionectomy
Removal of the vertebral posterior arch to correct severe back problems and pain caused by compression of a spinal nerve
laminectomy
A thin catheter tube is inserted into the intervertebral disk through the skin and the herniated or ruptured disk material is sucked out or a laser is used to vaporize it
percutaneous diskectomy
Surgical immobilization of adjacent vertebrae.
spinal fusion
surgical reconstruction of a hip by implanting a prosthetic or artificial hip joint
total hip arthroplasty
Surgical reconstruction of a knee joint by implanting a prosthetic knee joint
total knee arthroplasty
A procedure to stabilize a fractured bone while it heals
fixation
Correcting a fracture by realigning the bone fragments
reduction
Applying a pulling force on a fractured or dislocated limb or the vertebral column in order to restore normal alignment
traction
Conditions that result in weak and fragile bones, such as osteoporosis and Paget's disease, are improved by medications that reduce the reabsorption of bones
bone reabsorption inhibitors
Maintaining high blood levels of calcium in association with vitamin D helps maintain bone density; used to treat osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and rickets
calcium supplements and vitamin D therapy
A hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that has very strong anti-inflammatory properties. It is particularly useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis
corticosteroids
A large group of drugs that provide mild pain relief and anti-inflammatory benefits for conditions such as arthritis
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
fasci/o
fibrous band
fibr/o
fibers
kinesi/o
movement
muscul/o
muscle
my/o
muscle
myocardi/o
heart muscle
myos/o
muscle
plant/o
sole of foot
ten/o
tendon
tend/o
tendon
tendin/o
tendon
-asthenia
weakness
-kinesia
movement
-tonia
tone
ab-
away from
ad-
toward
circum-
around
Muscles are bundles of parallel ___
muscle tissue fibers
What are the 3 types of muscles?
skeletal
smooth
cardiac
Skeletal muscle is also referred to as ___
striated muscle
Each skeletal muscle is wrapped in layers of fibrous connective tissue called ___
fascia
The fascia of skeletal muscle tapers at each end to form a very strong ___
tendon
Skeletal muscles are stimulated by ___ of the nervous system
motor neurons
The point at which the motor nerve contracts a muscle fiber in skeletal muscle is called the ___
myoneural junction
Smooth muscle is also known as ___
visceral muscle
Cardiac muscle is also known as ___
myocardium
In skeletal muscle, the less moveable of the two bones is considered to be the starting point of the muscle and is called the ___
origin
In skeletal muscle, the more moveable bone is considered to be where the muscle ends and is called the ___
insertion
The type of movement a skeletal muscle produces is called its ___
action
Skeletal muscles are often arranged around joints in ___, meaning they produce opposite actions
antagonistic pairs
Movement away from the midline of the body
abduction
Movement toward midline of the body
adduction
Act of bending or being bent (decreasing the angle)
flexion
Movement that brings the limb into a or toward a straight condition (increases the angle)
extension
Backward bending, as of hand or foot
dorsiflexion
Bending sole of foot; pointing toes downward
plantar flexion
Turning outward
eversion
Turning inward
inversion
To turn downward or backward as with the hand or foot
pronation
Turning the palm or foot upward
supination
To raise a body part, as in shrugging the shoulders
elevation
A downward movement, as in drooping the shoulders
depression
Movement in a circular direction from a central point. Imagine drawing a large circle in the air
circumduction
Moving thumb away from palm; the ability to move the thumb into direct contact with the other fingers
opposition
Moving around a central axis
rotation
What attaches muscle to bone?
tendon
What attaches bone to bone?
ligament
Scar tissue forming in the fascia surrounding a muscle, making it difficult to stretch the muscle
adhesion
Poor muscle development as a result of muscle disease, nervous system disease, or lack of use; commonly referred to as muscle wasting
atrophy
Abormal shortening of muscle fibers, tendons, or fascia making it difficult to stretch the muscle
contracture
Increase in muscle bulk as a result of using it, as in lifting weights
hypertrophy
Attacks of severe pain and lameness caused by ischemia of the muscles, typically the calf muscles; brought on by walking even very short distances
intermittent claudication
Sudden, involuntary, strong muscle contraction
spasm
Severe neck spasms pulling the head to one side. Commonly called wryneck or a crick in the neck
torticollis
Condition with widespread aching and pain in the muscles and soft tissue
fibromyalgia
Inflammation of the muscle attachment to the lateral epicondyle of the elbow. Often caused by strongly gripping. Commonly called tennis elbow.
lateral epicondylitis
Inherited disease causing a progressive muscle degeneration, weakness, and atrophy
muscular dystrophy
One type of inherited muscular dystrophy in which the muscle tissue is gradually replaced by fatty tissue, making the muscle look strong. Also called Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
pseudohypertropic muscular dystrophy
Repetitive motion disorder with pain caused by compression of the finger flexor tendons and median nerve as they pass throught the carpal tunnel of the wrist
carpal tunnel syndrome
Cyst that forms on tendon sheath, usually on hand, wrist, or ankle
ganglion cyst
Group of chronic disorders involving the tendon, muscle, joint, and nerve damage, resulting from the tissue being subjected to pressure, vibration, or repetitive movements for prolonged periods
repetitive motion disorder
The rotator cuff consists of the joint capsule of the shoulder joint reinforced by the tendons from several shoulder muscles. The high degree of flexibility at the shoulder joint puts the rotator cuff at risk for strain and tearing
rotator cuff injury
Damage to the muscle, tendons, or ligaments due to overuse or overstretching
strain
Muscle enzyme found in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. Blood levels become elevated in disorders such as heart attack, muscular dystrophy, and other skeletal muscle pathologies
creatine phosphokinase
Muscle contraction in response to a stretch caused by striking the muscle tendon with a reflex hammer. Test used to determine if muscles are responding properly
deep tendon reflexes
Study and record of the strength and quality of muscle contractions as a result of electrical stimulation
electromyography
Removal of muscle tissue for pathological examination
muscle biopsy
Surgical cutting of the ligament in the wrist to relieve nerve pressure caused by carpal tunnel syndrome, which can result from repetitive motion such as typing
carpal tunnel release
surgical procedure to stabilize a joint by anchoring down the tendons of the muscles that move the joint
tenodesis
Medication to relax skeletal muscles in order to reduce muscle spasms. Also called antispasmodics
skeletal muscle relaxants
The place where 2 bones meet, are held together by ligaments, and give flexion to the skeleton
joints
How many bones in the skeleton?
206
What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system?
frame,
protect vital organs,
work with muscles for movement,
store minerals,
red blood cell production
What are the 2 types of bone?
compact/cortical
cancellous/spongy
Bones are formed from a gradual process before birth called ___
ossification
joint pain
arthralgia
punture to withdraw fluid from a joint
arthrocentisis
surgically breaking a joint
arthroclasia
fusion of a joint
arthrodesis
record of a joint
arthrogram
joint inflammation
arthritis
incision into a joint
arthrotomy
instrument to view inside a joint
arthroscope
removal of a bursa
bursectomy
inflammation of a bursa
bursitis
removal of cartilage
chondrectomy
cartilage softening
chondromalacia
cartilage tumor
chondroma
surgical repair of cartilage
chondroplasty
pertaining to the outer portion
cortical
pertaining to inside the skull
intracranial
incision into the skull
craniotomy
pertaining to the inner portion
medullary
bone marrow tumor
myeloma
bone pain
ostealgia
bone and cartilage tumor
osteochondroma
to surgically break a bone
osteoclasia
inflammation of bone and bone marrow
osteomyelitis
incision into a bone
osteotomy
bone disease
osteopathy
instrument to cut bone
osteotome
inflammation of synovial membrane
synovitis
removal of synovial membrane
synovectomy
pertaining to between vertebrae
intervertebral
pertaining to fascia
fascial
inflammation of fascia
fasciitis
incision into fascia
fasciotomy
study of movement
kinesiology
pertaining to muscles
muscular
muscle pain
myalgia
muscle weakness
myasthenia
record of muscle electricity
electromyogram
pertaining to heart muscle
myocardial
muscle disease
myopathy
surgical repair of muscle
myoplasty
suture a muscle
myorrhaphy
muscle rupture
myorrhexis
inflammation of many muscles
polymyositis
tendon pain
tenodynia
surgical repair of a tendon
tenoplasty
suture a tendon
tenorrhaphy
surgical repair of a tendon
tendoplasty
incision into tendon
tendotomy
inflammation of a tendon
tendinitis
pertaining to tendons
tendinous
slow movement
bradykinesia
difficult or painful movement
dyskinesia
excessive movement
hyperkinesia
insufficient movement
hypokinesia
lack of tone
atonia
abnormal tone
dystonia
excessive tone
hypertonia
insufficient tone
hypotonia
muscle tone
myotonia