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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anatomical position
base position for health professions when describing planes positions or directions
body planes
reference planes for indicating the locations or direction of body parts
coronal or frontal plane
vertical division of the body into front and back
sagittal plane
place vertical division of the body into right and left portion
transverse plane
horizontal division of the body into upper and lower potions
anterior (A) (ventral)
front of the body
posterior (P) (dorsal)
back of the body
anterior-posterior (AP)
from front to back
posterior-anterior (PA)
from back to front
superior (cephalic)
situated above another structure; towards the head
inferior (caudal)
situated below another structure; away from the head
proximal
toward the beginning or origin of a structure
distal
away from the beginning or origin of a structure
medial
toward the middle
lateral
toward the side
axis
line that runs through the center of the body or body part
erect
normal standing position
decubitus
lying down
prone
lying face down
recumbent
lying down
flexion
bending at the joint so the angle between bones is decreases
extenrion
straitening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increased
abduction
movement away from the body
adduction
movement toward the body
rotation
circular movement around an axis
eversion
turning outward
inversion
turning inward
supination
turning upward or forward of the palmer surface
pronation
turning downward or backward of the palmer surface
dorsiflexion
bending of the foot or toes upward
plantar flexion
bending of the sole of the foot by curling the toes toward the ground
range of motion (ROM)
total motion possible in a joint
goniometer
instrument used to measure joint angles
arthralgia
joint pain
atrophy
shrinking of tissue
crepitation
grating sound sometimes made by movement of a joint or broken bone
crepitus
grating sound sometimes made by movement of a joint or broken bone
exostosis
a projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage
flaccid
flabby, relaxed, or having defective of absent muscle tone
hypertrophy
increase in the size of muscle
hypotonia
reduced muscle tension
myodynia myalgia
muscle pain
myodynia myoalgia
muscle pain
rigor or rigidity
stiffness; stiff muscle
spasm
drawing in; involuntary muscle contraction
spastic
uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles causing stiff and awkward movements
tetany
tension; prolonged, continuous muscle contraction
tremor
shaking; rhythmic muscular movement
ankylosis
stiff joint condition
arthritis
inflammation of the joints
osteoarthritis, degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease (DJD)
most common arthritis, especially affecting weight-bearing joints characterized by erosion of articular cartilage
rheumatoid arthritis
most crippling form of arthritis, characterized by chronic, systemic inflammation most often affecting joints and synovial membranes, causing ankylosis and deformity
gouty arthritis
acute attacks of arthritis usually in a single joint caused by hyperuricemia (excessive uric acid in the blood)
sequestrum, bony necrosis
bone tissue that has died from loss of blood supply
bunion
swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe caused by inflammation of the bursa
bursistis
inflammation of the bursa
chondromalacia
softening of cartilage
epiphysitis
inflammation of the epiphyseal regions of the long bone
fracture (Fx)
broken or cracked bone
closed fracture
broken bone with no open wound
open fracture
compound fracture; broken bone with an open wound
simple fracture
a nondisplaced fracture with one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair
complex fracture
a displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
fracture line
the line of the break in a broken bone (oblique, spiral, transverse)
comminuted fracture
broken in many pieces
greenstick fracture
bending and incomplete break of a bone – most often seen in children
herniated disk or disc
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented invertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
myeloma
bone marrow tumor
myositis
inflammation of the muscle
myoma
muscle tumor
leiomynoma
smooth muscle tumor
leiomyosarcoma
malignant smooth muscle tumor
rhabdomyoma
skeletal muscle tumor
rhabdomysarcoma
malignant skeletal muscle tumor
muscular dystrophy
a category of genetically transmitted diseases characterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscle (Duchene’s)
osteoma
bone tumor
osteosarcoma
type of malignant bone tumor
osteomalacia
disease marked by softening of the bone casued by calcium and vitamin D deficiency
rickets
osteomalacia in children
osteomyelitis
infection of bone and bone marrow causing inflammation
osteoporosis
condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity, causing bones to become more brittle
spinal curvatures
spinal curvatures
kyphosis
abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (humped-back)
lordosis
abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine
scoliosis
abnormal lateral curve (s shaped)
spondylolisthesis
forward slipping of a lumbar vertebra
spondylosis
stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae
sprain
injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but without joint dislocation of fracture
subluxation
a partial dislocation
tendonitis, tendonitis
inflammation of a tendon
electromyogram (EMG)
a neurodiagnostic graphic record of the electrical activity of the muscle at rest and during contraction
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
non ionizing imaging technique using magnetic fields and radio frequencies to visualize anatomic structures
nuclear medicine imaging, radionuclide organ imaging
injected or ingested radioacticty for visualizing structures
bone scan
a nuclear scan of bone tissue to detect a problem
radiography
an imaging modality using x-ray to diagnose conditions or impairments some where in the body
arthrogram
a radiograph of a joint taken after injection of a contrast medium
computed tomography (CT), computed axial tomography (CAT)
radiological procedure using a machine scanner to take a series of cross-sectional x-ray images in a full circle rotation
sonography
use of high frequency sounds waves to make an image of tissues or structures
amputation
partial or complete removal of a limb; AKA, above knee amputation, or BKA, below knee amputation
arthrocentesis
puncture for aspiration of a joint
arthrodesis
binding or fusing of joint surfaces
arthroplasty
repair or reconstruction of a joint
arthroscopy
procedure using an arthroscope to examine, diagnose, and repair a joint form within
bone grafting
transplantation of a piece of bone from one site to another to repair a skeletal defect
bursectomy
excision of a bursa
open reduction internal fixation (ORIF)
internal surgical repair of a facture by bringing bones back into alignment and fixing them into place with devices such as plates, screws, and pins
osteotomy
an incision into bone
osteoplasty
repair of bone
spondylosyndesis
spinal fusion
tenotomy
division by incision of a tendon to repair a deformity caused by shortening of a muscle
closed reduction, external fixation of a fracture
external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment along with application of an external device to protect and hold the bone in place while healing
casting
use of a stiff, solid dressing around a limb or other body part to immobilize it during healing
splinting
use of a rigid device to immobilize or restrain a broken bone or injured body part
traction (Tx)
application of pulling force to a fractured bone or dislocated joint to maintain proper position for healing
closed reduction percutaneous fixation of a fracture
external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment, followed by insertion of one or more pins through the skin to maintain position—often includes use of an external device called a fixator to keep the fracture immobilized during healing
orthosis (brace)
use of an orthopedic appliance to maintain a bone’s position or to provide limb support
physical therapy (PT)
treatment to rehabilitation patients disabled by illness or injury, including exercise, hydrotherapy, diathermy, and ultra sound
prosthesis
an artificial replacement for a missing body part
analgesic
a drug the relives pain
narcotic
a potent analgesic with addictive properties
anti-inflammatory
a drug that reduces inflammation
antipyretic
a drug that relives fever
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
a group of drugs with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties used to treat arthritis