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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The third line of defense has ____.
memory or adaptive immunity or specific immunity
___ are molecules that trigger a specific immune response.
Properties that make a molecule more antigenic include:
shape, size, and complexity
How does the body recognize antigens?
via three dimensional regions known as epitopes
What is a hapten?
It is a small molecule that makes a poor antigen due to its size
What phenomenon prevents the body from mounting an immune response against itself?
self tolerance
Where would you not expect to find lymphatic capilllaries?
Bone marrow, brain, and spinal cord
What are two types of lymphocytes?
B and T
What is the center of a lymph node called?
germinal centers
What does MALT stand for?
Mucosa-associated lymphatic vessels.

Includes lymphoid tissue of the respiratory tract, vagina, urinary bladder, and mammary glands and peyer's patches
True or False

The spleen contains most of the body's lymphoctyes
False- MALT does
Where are B cells primarily found?
spleen, lymph nodes, and MALT
What is a major function of B cells?
Secretion of protective antibodiesor immunoglobins
The activity of B cells is said to be a _____ immune response.
The ____ and _____ of an antibody are joined by disulfide bonds.
Heavy chain & light chain
The two arms of an antibody are connected by ____.
the hinge region
an antibody stem is aka an _______.
Fc region
an Fc region is formed from the ________.
two ;pwer portopms pf tje twp jeavy chains
What are the 5 types of heavy chains and what do they stand for?
gamma, mu, alpha, epsilon, and delta amd they stand for the classes of antibodies: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD
The two variable regions form on a B cell form ____ and are known as the ____.
antigen-binding site, Fab regions
Antigen binding sites are complementary to ____.
antigenic determinants aka epitopes
When antigen binding sits are bound to epitopes, what functions take place?
activation of complement, stimulation of inflammation, neutralization, opsonization, direct killing, and agglutination.
List some functions of antibodies.
Neutralization, opsinzation, killing by oxidation,and agglutination
What are opsonins?
molecules that stimulate phagocytosis
When antigens kill by oxidation, what is produced?
hydrogen peroxide
What is the most common class of antibody in the blood?
True or False

IgA can leave blood vessels more easily than can the other immunoglobins
False, IgG is the one that can leave blood vessels the easiest.
Which immunoglobulin is the most closely associated with various body secretions?
Secretory IgA are dimers linked via a ___.
J chain
Which immunoglobin can cross the placenta?
Which immunoglobin consists of a cluster of 5 joined by a J chain?
T cells act against _____ invaders.
Endogenous (like cancer cells)
True or False

T cells screte immunoglobins
False, B cells do that
What are the 3 types of T cells?
Cytotoxic T cells, and two types of H cells
Cytotoxic T cells has the presence of ____.
CD8 cell surface glycoprotein

Directly kill other cells
Th, or helper cells are identifiable by the presence of ___.
CD4 glycoprotein
Helper cells function in
regulating the activity of B cells and cytotoxic t cells during an immune response
Th1 cells function in
assisting cytotoxic cells
Th2 cells function in
conjunction with B cells
Helper T cells secrete
cytokines (determine which immune response will be activated)
Th1 cells express the cytokine recepter:
Th2 cells express the cytokine receptor:
What substances are included among cytokines of the immune system?
interleukins, interferons, growth factors, tumor necrosis factor, chemokines
Interleukins signal among ____.
Interferons are ____ proteins.
TNF is secreted by ____ and ___.
macrophages and t cells
____ sugbak keyjicytes to rush to a site of inflammation or infection and activate other leukocytes
Just read the other side of this card.
The body prepares for specific immume responses by killing lymphocytes with receptors complementary to autoantigens, making so-called major histocompatibility complex proteins, and processing antigens so that the can be recognized by lymphocytes
Where does lymphocyte editing take place for B lymphocytes?
Bone marrow
What happens when a lymphocyte binds to an autoantigen?
It undergoes apoptosis (aka cell suicide)
What is another name for lymphocyte editing?
clonal deletion
When self tolerance is impaird, an ___ occurs.
autoimmune disease
In humans, MHC is located on each copy of ____.
Chromosome 6
What is the function of MHC proteins?
Function to hold and position antigenic determinants for presentation to T cells.
Class _____ MHC moleucles are found on the cytoplasmic membranes of all nucleated cells.
Why don't RBC's have MHC I molecules?
Because they lack nuclei
Where are Class II MHC molecules typically located?
On B lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APCs)
What is the difference between T-independent antigens and T-dependent antigens?
One does not require the help of helpter T cells and one does.
Communication among luekocytes is dependent among ____ and ____.
MHC glycoproteins and cytokines
The offspring of B cells proliferate into ____ and ____.
memory b cells and plasma cells
Plasma cells secrete
True or False

Plasma cells have BCR
False, memory cells of B cells do.
A primary immune response ends when
the clone of plasma cells has lived out its normal life span
_____ stimulates nearby Th cells to become Th1 cells.
Interleukin 12
Th1 cells secrete ____ which activates ___.
Il-2, cytotoxic T cells
True or False

Activated Tc Cells can become self-stimulating
List the two pathways that cytotoxic T cells KILL.
1. Perforin-granzyme pathway
1. CD95 pathway
The cytotoxic T cells have vesicles that contain two key protein molecules:
perforins and granzymes
Perforins in cytotoxic T cells function to
create channels for enterance of granzymes
Granzymes in cytotoxic T cells function to
activate enzymes of apoptosis
Where does a "chemical communication" occur in regards to T cells and antigen presenting cells?
immunological synapse
Give examples of naturally aquired passive immunity:
IgG placental crossing and IgA mothers milk
Give an example of artificially aquired active immunity
get a vaccine, mount an active response
Give an example of artificially acquired passive immunity

harvesting antibodies (antisera or antitoxins)

NO because B and T lymphocytes aren't activated
Give an example of naturally acquired active immunity
recovering from a cold.