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26 Cards in this Set

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What are the two major groups of Gram-positive pathogens?

What is this name based on?
Low G + C Gram-positive bacteria and High G + C Gram-positive bacteria

It is based on the ration of guanine-cytosine nucleotide base pairs to adenine-thymine nucleotide base pairs in these organisms' DNA
What three genera of pathogenic spherical cells are included in the Low G + C gram positive category?
Staphylococcus, streptococcus, and Enterococcus
What three genera of pathogenic rod-shaped cells are included in the Low G + C gram positive cateogory?
Bacillius, Clostridium, and Listeria
What rod shaped cells are included in the high G + C gram positive category?
Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, and Propionicbacterium
What filamentus, fungus like cells are in the high G + C category?
Norcardia, and Actinomyces
Give the break down of Staphylococcus.

1. Category (genus)
2. Structure and Physiology
3. Pathogenicity
4. Epidemiology
5. Disease
6. Diagnosis, TX and prevention
1. Low G + C gram positive bacteria
2. spherical clusters, anaerobic, (salt, radiation, dessication, heat tolerant)
3. Protein A (interferes with humoral immune response by halting opsonization and the complement cascade), outer surface has bound coagulase (causes fibrin clots that "hide" the bacteria), Slime layers, enzymes, toxins
4. Direct contact and fomites
5. Noninvasive (food poisoning), cutaneous (scaleded skin syndrome, impetigo, and folliculitis), systemic diseases (TSS, bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonida and empyema, osteomyelitis)
6. resistant to many antibiotics
methicillin and vancomycin are drugs of last resort
MRSA and VRSA are of extreme public health concern
What two species are commonly associated with staphylococcal diseases in humans?
1. Staphylococcus aureus
2. Staphylococcus epidermidis
What does staphylococcus synthesize that other G + C Gram positive cocci do not?
Catalase
What toxins do staphylococci produce to contribute to their survival and pathogenicity?
Cell-free coagulase, hyalouronidase, staphylokinase, lipases, and b-Lactamase
True or False

Only S.aureus produces cell-free coagulase
True
True or False

All staphylococci produce lipases
True
What is the function of staphylokinase
To break down fibrin clots
What is the function of B-lactamase
To break down penicillion
List the Toxins associated with staphylococcus
Cytolytic toxins, exfoliative toxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin, and entereotoxins
______ is one of the more common causes of food poisoning
s.aureus
True or False

Food contaminated with s.aureus generally tastes bitter and sour.
False- it usually does not appear or taste unusual
S.aureus causes localized ______ lesions.
Pyogenic
Whats the difference between impetigo and scalded skin syndrome?
Impetigo’s patches are filled with bacteria, sss’s patches aren’t
When the pneumonia occurs and the fluid that fills the lungs is pus, the condition is then known as ____.
Empyema
If staphylococcal samples are able to clot blood then they are coagulase positive ______. If they aren’t, then they are coagulase negative _____.
S.aureaus and S.epidermidis, respectively
What is generally used to treat MRSA infections?
Vancomycin
What does MRSA stand for?
Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
Give the break down of Staphylococcus Group A.

1. Category (genus)
2. Structure and Physiology
3. Pathogenicity
4. Epidemiology
5. Disease
6. Diagnosis, TX and prevention
1. Low G + C gram positive bacteria – aka s.pyogens
2. Facultatively anaerobic, spherical cells, usually forms a large zone of beta hemolysis and capsules
3. Protein M (destabilizes complement therefore interferes with opsonization and lysis), and hyaluromic acid (acts as camoflauge since HA is normally found in the body), streptokinases, deoxyribonucleases, C5a peptidase and streptolysins. Toxins include pyrogenic toxins
4. Respiratory droplets in crowded conditions
5. Pharyngitis, scarlet fever, pyoderma and erysipelas, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing fascitis, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis
6. antibiotic sensitive, so serious forms of disease are rare. (penicillin, cepahlosporins, topical antimicrobials like bacitracon)
True or False

Streptococcus is catalase positive
False- only staphylococcus is catalase positive
A ___ is a confined, pis-producing lesion that usually occurs on the exposed skin of the face, arms, or legs.
Pyoderma
When a streptococcal infection involves the lymph nodes, the condition is known as __.
erysipelas