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33 Cards in this Set

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What are 3 aspects of cellular neurobiology the provide insight into behavior?
1. The way neurons produce and convey signals provides insight to the way we sense and respond to stimuli
2. Patterns of connections explain particular functions
3. Means by which neuron signaling and connectivity are altered provides insight into adaptability
What is the name of Golgi's theory?
Reticular theory
Describe Golgi's technique.
The "black reaction;" invented in 1873; fixed tissue imprenated with silver nitra and potassium dichromate resulting in complete staining of some nerve cells
What is the reticular theory?
Described the net-like structure (rete nervosa diffusa)
What 4 features do all neurons have in common?
1. Compartmentalization of structure and function
2. Electrical excitability
3. Synaptic connections
4. All are non-replicating (post-mitotic)
What were Cajal's 2 theories?
1. Neuron doctrine
2. Dynamic Polarization
What is the law of dynamic polarization?
Cajal's law that nerve cells are polarized, receiving information on their cell bodies and dendrites and conucting them to distan lcations through axons
What element is the cytosol rich in?
Potassium
What is another name for the lipid bilayer?
Plasmalemma
What are axon branches known as?
Collaterals
WHat is the part called where the axon attaches to the soma?
Axon hillock
What is the relationship between width of axon and speed of conduction?
The fatter the axon the faster its electrical conduction; (ranges from 1-25 microseconds in mammals to 1mm wide in the gian squid)
What part of the neuron has no microtubulues?
The presynaptic terminal
WHo worked with Wallerian degeneration/
August Waller
How many hours after cutting the axon does Wallerian degeneration occur?
12-18 hours
What did Paul Weiss do?
Showed that material builds up proximal to a ligature around an axon; the lump disappears once the ligature is released as materia lmoves anterogradely at a rate of 1-10 mm/day
How fast is slow axoplasmic transport?
1-10 mm/day
How fast is fast axoplasmic transport?
1000 mm/day (1 micrometer/sec)
What are the 3 kinds of scaffolding in the cytoskeleton?
- Microtubules
- Neurofilaments
- Microfilaments
What are microtubules a polymer of?
Tubulin
What anchor microtubules together?
Microtubules associated proteins (MAPs), such as tau
Where does anterograde transport move material?
Towards the nerve terminals
What is the anterograde motor along the microtubule?
Kinsein
What is the retrograde motor transport along the microtubule?
Dynein
How ere kinesin and dynein found?
Differential Interference Contrast
Ho qxn nwueona vw lVWLWS CI ewreofesW REnapoer?
Qirh hoeaweeSIAH PWEOZISaw
Are dendrites myelinated?
No
What are 6 ways to classify neurons?
1. Number of neurites (unipolar, bipolar, multipolar)
2. Number of dendrites (stellate vs. pyramidal)
3. Number of connection or functions (sensory vs. motor
4. Axon length (long are oglgi type 1, such as pyramidal; short are golgi type II, such as interneurons)
5. Neurotransmitter
6. Named cells (purkinje)
How do glial cells differ from neurons?
Glial cells are proliferative, inexcitable, and only a few types
What ar ethe 3 types of glial cells?
1. Astrocytes (space filling)
2, Myelinating Glia
3. Microglia
What do astrocytes do?
Space fillers; regulate extracellular K+ and neurotransmitters; blood-brain barrier
What are 2 types of myelinating glia?
Oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS
What do microglia do?
FUnction as phagocytes