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235 Cards in this Set

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Antigen
foreign substance that causes antibodies to be formed
Allergen
subset of antigen, when antibodies produced are allergenic
Allergy symptons result from what?
allergens
What is food allergy?
Immune system dependent, caused by food, you have immediate hypersensitivity reaction
Exposure to food is critical for what?
Disease development (sensitization), disease expression and maintenance
Differences between food allergy and food intoleranc?
Food allergy is dependent on immune system…Food intolerance is not. Food allergy activates immune sytem and food intolerance is a precise metabolic defect (inability to digest food components)…Food allergy can be lethal and Food intolerance is not.
What foods cause allergic reactions?
90% caused by egg, milk, soy, wheat, peanuts, tree-nuts, fish, and shell-fish
What are antibodies?
protein molecules produced in response to antigens that help to deactivate the antigens.
What is histamine?
Causes inflammation, is produced by mast and basophil cells in response to an antigen
What is anaphylactic shock?
life threating whole body reaction
Food allergy is blamed for what in children?
physical and behavioral abnormalities
What % of children are diagnosed with true food allergies? Adults?
children 6% ….adults 3.7%
When does a food allergy occur?
When an allergic food protein or large molecule enters body tissue
What happens to most large proteins? How are some absorbed?
Most are digested, some enter bloodstream before digestion
What happens once this protein is in the body of an allergic person?
it triggers reaction from the immune system
In response to the prescense of an allergen what does the immune system release?
Mediators of disease like histamine and other defense agents
What substances are most likely to cause deadly anaphylactic shock?
peanuts, milk, egg, wheat, soybeans, fish
What are allergen caused deaths associated with?
food specific IgE antibody production
What is the sequence of events when an IgE antibody causes a food allergy?
First time exposure causes production of IgE ab ….it is then loaded on to mast cells….Second exposure causes cross linking of IgE ab on the mast cells…this causes the mast cells to release mediators like histamine.
What are the major causes of food allergy deaths?
peanut tree nuts and sesames
How man deaths a year are caused by food allergy and what has happened to the amount of food allergy in the past 2 decades?
150-200 deaths, and it has doubled
How does a caretaker prevent nutritional deficiences in children with food allergies?
by providing nutritious alternatives.
What are some of the symptoms a child learns to watch for to recognise impending anaphylactic shock?
tingling of tongue, throat and skin, difficulty breathing
What does epinephrine do?
it prevents anaphylaxis…a hormone from the adrenal gland counteracts shock by opening airways and maintaining blood pressure
Food labels must do what concerning allergic foods?
announce common allergens in plain language using 8 common names…and they must identify foods likely to be cross contaminated
In detection of food allergies, what two components are present?
antibodies are involved, symptoms are SOMEtimes involved
Common practice in detecting food allergies involves what?
taking foods away and bringing them back one by one…
What medical test would confirm a food allergy?
blood test that confirms presence of antibodies
What if food intolerance?
adverse reaction to food not involving immune system
What is food aversion?
intense dislike of a food…biological or physcial that results from illness or a bad experience
What are the symptoms of Food intolerance characterized by?
unpleasent and reliably right after consumption of certain foods
When a parent sees a food aversion in a child what should they do?
take them seriosuly, it could be an allergy
What are basic health recommendations meant to do?
prevent deficiency and reduce disease risk and they are for the general population
What are sports recommendations for?
optimize fitness and performance, likely for a sport
What are components of a diet recommended for Cardio health, weight management and Cancer risk reduction?
low fat, low sat fat, fruits veggies and whole grains, and modest sugar and salt
What are components of a diet recommended for Endurance?
Carbohydrates and fluid
What are components of a diet recommended for Strength?
protein and carbohydrates?
Where do nutrition recommendation statements concerning athletic performance come from?
american college of sports medicine / american dietetic association
Where do general nutrition recommendation statements come from?
DRI committee, IOM, american heart association, and the USDA
What are the performance nutrients?
Carbohydrates, protein, fat and micronutrients
What are the energy systems used during exercise?
ATP-Pc "turbo charge"/ Glycogen-Lactate "overdrive"/ Aerobic System "cruise mode"
How long is ATP available and what is its fuel?
1-10 seconds and its phospho-creatine
How long is Glycogen-Lactate available for and what is its fuel sourcE?
1-90 secs and its glycogen/CHO
How long is the Aerobic system available for and what is its fuel source?
hours and fatty acids/ glucose/ and protein
How are carbohydrates stored in the body?
as glycogen
What is glycogen a key fuel for and a secondary fuel for?
high intensity muscle contractions and secondary for aerobic exercise
What is bound to glycogen and what parts of the body is it stored in?
Water…muscles, liver and blood
Why are carbohydrate rich foods essential?
If you have a limited ability to store carbohydrates you must replenish glycogen after activity and carbohydrates provide important nutrients.
What are glycogen stores in the muscles of runners with high carb diets?
they are three times as high
What happens to endurance athletes when they don’t have enough carbs?
glycogen is depleted…more 02 is used to maintain speed…and fatigue
What happens to power athletes when they don’t have enough carbs?
power is reduced, muscle broken down for energy
What happens to glycogen in high temp and humidy?
it is broken down faster
What is the carb recommendation for high intensity events?
2.3-3.6 g carb/pound of body weight
What is the carb recommendation for Endurance athletes?
3.5-5 g carb/pound of body weight
How many grams of dietary fiber is recommended per 1000 Kcals?
15
Fruits vegetables and grains are rich in what?
antioxidants that help reduce disease risk
Proteins are what?
amino acids and a structural component of all body tissues
When you have adequate calories and carbs you can do what with protein?
"spare it"
Protein has critical roles in what?
role as enzymes and hormones that control body functions
Average adult protein recommendation?
.36g /lb
Average strength training protein recommendation?
.55-.64 g/lb
What kind of proteins should you choose?
lean low fat ones
Animal protein is what?
it is complete (has all essential aa's)
Plant protein is what?
is not always complete, higher in fiber and micronutrients
What does fat provide?
energy and beta-oxidation
What percentage of diet should fat represent?
20-30%
Athletes and micronutrients?
athletes may need slightly higher amounts of micronutrients
What are some micronutrients?
Fat soluble vitamins (adek) / water soluble vitamins / minerals /
What are fat soluble vitamins important for?
important for some hormones, tissue integrity and as antioxidants
What is key for concerning nutrients and a diet?
density
What is the goal concerning meal timing?
optimize glycogen repletion and maximize protein synthesis
What is grazing?
3 meals + snacks
What are some recommendations concerning eating sports and meal timing?
meal 3-5 hours before event, small snak 45-60 min before, large snak within 60 min after, and eat evry 2-3 hours after
How many cups of water are needed to repace each lb of body weight lost?
1
Pre and post exercise intake does what?
supports muscle anabolism and supplies AA for rebuilding msucle tissue and supports liver and muslce glycogen synthesis repletion
What are recommendations for nutrition during exercise?
It is only needed for events 80-90 min/ if it is too carb concentrated it can cause cramps 5-8%, this will help to maintain blood sugar and glycogen stores during the event
What type of dehydration does it take to reduce performance?
only 2-3%
What does dehydration do?
it impairs body temp / HR increases and stroke volume decreases / causes fatigue
Electrolyte loss does what?
reduces performance, increases risk for heart injury
How much fluid do you want 60 min prior to an event?
16 oz
How many ounces of water do you want to drink after losing a pound of body weight?
24
What do cool beverages do? What do Sweet ones cause?
cool move through body faster and sweet ones may encourage more drinking
What is the SNAPP and what is its goal?
provide nutrition training to evarybodey
What is calcium?
The most abundant mineral in the body, 99% of it is stored in bones and teeth
Active, living tissue includes what?
bones
What are some other major functions of calcium?
nerve transmission, blood pressure, blood clotting, muscle contraction and heartbeat
What are the RDA's for adolescents, 19-50, 51+, for calcium?
1300mg/day…1000 mg/day….1200mg/day
Who has the highest calcium consomption in the world and highest rate of osteoeporosis in the world? Lowest?
US..africa
As protein consumption increases what happens to urinary calcium loss?
it too increases
What happens as animal protein consumption increases? Plant protein?
Hip fracture increases, and with plant it decreases
Why would africans have less osteoporosis?
cause they run in the jungle
What are some risk factors for osteoporosis?
early menopause, eating disorders and teen, caucasian and asian, small body, certain meds that infterfere with bone density
How do you prevent Osteoporosis?
vit D and K, maintain healthy weight, less sodium, increase physical activity
What are some of the rates of calcium absorption in different food sources?
nuts are the lowest at 20, milk at 30, and caabbage at 50%
What is phoshporus?
It is our bones and teeth, it is part of DNA and RNA, and is important for energy metabolism
What are phosphorous salts?
they are critical buffers that maintain acid base balance of cellular fluids
What is magnesium?
It is part of protein formation, muscular relaxation, energy metabolism, it assists in enzyme function, it affects metabolism of potasium, calcium and vit D, and it provides resistance to tooth decay
What is Sodium?
it is the principle positive ion outside the body cells, it maintains volume of fluid outside of cells and also maintains acid base balance
What does sodium have a role in?
Maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance
What does sodium solution do to blood pressure?
it increases it
What are the three things that determine blood pressure?
second small diamter arteries and capillaries resist blood flow (peripheral resistance) and third the number of dissolved particles in the fluid
What can prevent hypertension?
reducing salt intake and increasing calcium, potassium, magnesium, vit c
Who has the highest sodium intake blacks or whites?
fucking whites
What type of foods have the highest salt content?
processed foods, 75% of sodium in us diet
What happens to calcium when you eat more sodium?
calcium gets excreted
What is potassium?
It is the principle positive ion Inside the body, it maintains volume of fluid INSIDE cells, it maintains hearbeat and fluid and electrolyte balance
What kinds of foods have lots of potassium?
milk, banana, potato, lima beens, fish, honeydoober
When taking supplements u should take them with what?
food
What are the major functions of water
to carry nutrients, cleanse tissue and blood, chemical reactions, lubricate joints, …it is also a solvent, shock absorber and body temp
Where do you get most of your water?
liquids and foods
Where does most of your water go?
kidneys and skin
What is the total water intake recommendation for adults?
men 3.7 liters and women 2.7 liters
Actual fluid consumption accounts for what % of water we intake?
81
What is water intoxication?
excessive water consumption causing disruption of brain function due to imbalance of electrolytes in body fluids
What happens during water intoxication?
sodium in blood falls to dangerous levels the brain can swell
What amount of water can prove deadly?
6 pints (3 liters
What are the major minerals?
calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfur
What are the trace minerals?
iodine, iron, zinc, selenium, flouride, chomium, copper, manganese, molybdenum
What 3 minerals do we have the most amount of?
calcium phosphorus and potassium
What is the function of Iodine?
thyroxine hormone that regulates BMR
What are the sources of Iodine?
iodized salt, seafood
What are the functions of Iron?
It functions as oxygen carrying cells hemoglobin (red blood) and myoglobin (muscle cells) / helps enzymes use oxygen / and it is needed to make new cells amino acids, hormones and neurotransmitters
What is the RDA for iron?
Men 8 mg/day women 18 mg/day pregnant 27 mg/day
What foods have allot of iron?
spinach, enriched cereal ,clams, beef steak, navy beens
What is the source of Heme iron?
meat fish and poultry
What is the source of Non-heme iron?
meat fish poultry and plants
Non-heme Iron absoprtion interferes with what and enhances what?
it interferes with absorption of phytates, polyphenols and calcium / enhances vit c and mfp factor absorption
What does lead do to your body?
it displaces iron and calcium but does not perform there functions and it injures kidneys
Who absorb the most lead?
children
What do you combine to help achieve maximum iron absorption?
heme iron, nonheme iron, mfp factor and vit c
What are the functions of Zinc?
Zinc works with proteins to help enzymes: make parts of cells genetic materials, make heme in hemoglobin, helps pancreas in digestion, helps metabolize cho, protein and fat, liberates vit a from storage in the liver, and it disposes of damaging free radicals
What are foods high in zinc?
yogurt, pork chops, cereal, oysters, crab meat, beef steak
What are the functions of selenium?
assists enzymes that work with vit e to prevent free radical formation and oxidative damage and it activate thyroxine
What is flouride?
it is not an essential nutrient and it inhibits dental caries
What is Chromium?
it works with insulin to regulate and release energy from glucose
What is the function of copper?
It helps form hemoglobin and collagen, assists in reactions that release energy, works with proteins to regulate activity of certain genes, and it is a component of an enzyme that helps control damage from free radicals.
What is the function of Molybdenum and Manganese?
part of enzymes
How much of the worlds population is undernourished?
half
How much of the worlds population is overnourished?
1 billion
Where is the most under nourished people?
south asia
Where is the highest rate of under nutrition?
africa
What has african food production done?
it has no increase yields per area
What have the prices of basic staplse been doing over the past 40 years?
declining
What is the biggest nutrion problem in the world?
obesity
What was asia's green revolution?
under fears of a large food shortage, they developed high yield crops, grain production doubled between 1970 and 1995
Under the green revolution what happened to the poverty rate?
went from 60 to 33
What are the three dimensions of food security?
availabilty, access, and utilization
When providing relief for acute food insecurty, what needs to not happen?
you cant wreck food markets that would undermine chances for long term food security
How do you improve people's economic access to food?
increase there income
What is the main point of hunger as a poverty problem?
ag is just as important as a source of income as a source of food
What are some of the chalenges of improving food security in Africa?
it is very large and diverse have 7 major staples compared to 3 in asia, there is climate change
What are some of the political challenges of improving food security in africa?
no political commitment, AIDS, there are 48 separate states
What happened in the 1980's in Africa?
There was a retreat from rural development, less focus on ag development and more on education, health and emergencies.
How does the us compare with foreign aid to other rich countries?
it gives proportionately less
What are some of the potential advantages africa has?
new tech like biotech, better governance and decentralization, and there is a new interest in Africa
What are some hopeful signs for africas ag situation?
there have been increases in donor commitment from different governments, and there has been better ag performance in africa.
What is the studetn Organic Farm?
10 acre farm with year round production,
How does the student organic farm have vegetables year round?
greenhouses
What are the three branchers of the Student farm?
direct market (where food is sold), education(organic farming certificate program), community outreach
What is CSA?
community members pay upfront buying shares in the farm and take risks like the farmer does
What are some details about the organic farming certificate program?
year long, 40 credits
How far does the average food item travel in the us?
1500 miles
What is cancer?
cancer is just unchecked growth
How does cancer arise?
it arises from a loss of normal growth conrol in tissues, the balance of old and new tissue is disrupted, cells can no longer self destruct
What is adoptosis?
cell suicide
What are the two mechanisms cancer is able to spread by?
invasion and metastasis
What is invasion?
direct migration and penetration by cancer cells into neighboring tissues
What is metastasis?
ability of cancer cells to penetrate into lymphatic and blood vessels, circulate through the bloodstream, and then invade normal tissues elsewhere in the body.
What does a doctor do when there is evidence of cancer?
biopsy using piece of tissue, and also microarrays are used to determine wich genes are turned on or off in the sample, and also proteomic profiles are used
What is a good way of identifity the different causes of cancer?
studying populations
What kind of cancer is predominant in japan, us, and australia?
japan has stomach, us has colon, and australiea has skin
How can a virus cause cancer?
a virus can insert nucleic acids into the chromosomes of an infected cell, and this cell can become malignatnt
What does HPV cause?
cervical cancer
What does the bacterium helicobacter pylori do?
it causes stomach ulcers, and cauases stomach cancer
How is breast cancer related to heredity?
5 percent of breast cancers are thought to be caused by a "Breast cancer susceptibility gene"
How often is hereditary conditions thought to be involved in all cancer cases?
less than 10%
How much us death does cancer account for?
one quarter, just behind heart disease
How has the cancer rate compared to other diseases changed?
it has only decrease slightly, while other diseases are down substantially
What is the most fatal cancer in men and women?
lung
What trend is there seen in lung cancer for women?
the death rate is more than 2 tiem what it was 25 years ago
What is PSA testing?
prostate specific antigen
What have breast cancer rates for women done?
after increasing rapidly in the 1980's they have leveled off due to more mamograms and less use of hrt
What does the american cancer society recommend in our diet to help prevent cancer?
5 or more serving of fruit and vegetables
What does AMS recommend for exercise for cancer?
30 minutes 5 days a week
What percentage of adults don’t engage in leisure time activity?
one fourth
What has happened to the prevalence of obesity in kids since 1980?
it has tripled
How does obesity compare in states to 1992?
in 92 just 12 had 50% obesity, now they all do today
What is happening to breast feeding rates?
they are increasing
What does the AAP and ADA recommend for breast feeding?
at least 12 months
What did the US dept. of health and human services find about breastfeeding and women?
mothers were angry, breastfeeding and formula is not equal
How much does infant formula cost?
300 a month
What do infants that are breastfead have less of?
ear infectsions and diarrhea and respiratory illnesses
How much could breastfeeding save in health care costs for ear infections?
600 million
How much more are artificially fed infants prone to sids?
3 to 5 times more
Allergies and breastfeeding?
non breast fed babies have more allergies
Diabetes and breast feeding?
formula fed infants are more likely to get type 1 diabetes
Obesity
Forumale fed are fatter
Breastfeeding and long term health?
breastfeeding has effect on long term cardiovascular health
Breastfeeding benefits to mother?
reduces risk of cancer
How much more likely were women who didn’t breast feed to develop osteoporosis?
4 times
What is the breastfeeding initiative?
mother to moher peer counseling program, serving low income motehrs
What is infant formula made of?
cows milk, lower in iron and vit c
What are some infant forumual choices?
iron fortified, hypoallergenic, soy-based
when can an infant have cows milk?
not till 1 year of age
When can oyu start to feed an infant something other than breastmilk?
6 months start with ceral, other foods, watch for allergies
What can you do at 8-10 months?
begin yogurt, slowly introduce other foods like meat, cheese, eggs
What can you do at 10-12 months?
the diet can be more like a childs but still with tit milk
What do you want to avoid until 9 to 12 months?
What should you do when introducing new foods?
3 rejections, Don’t coerce to eat the food, try for 10 days,
Food safety is an attribute of what?
Food quality
What differs food safety from food quality?
you can see food quality, you cant see food safety
Whose responsibilty is food safety?
its shared with everyoen
What is the fed state and local regulation of food?
fed is USDA FDA, state is the michigan department of ag
What do good microorganisms do?
they ferment foods, preserve them, unique flavors and textrurse
What are microbes that cause foodborne illness?
pathogens like….bacteria, viruses, parasites
Whats the difference between infections and intoxications?
infection caused by microorganisms, intoxications caused by ingestion of toxins
Where are microbial pathogens found?
soils and human and animal intestinal tracts
What causes the greatest number of foodborne illnesses?
bacteria
What do bacteria need to grow?
mousture, nutrients and warmth
How does bacteria increase in number?
double every half hour
How does acidity affect bacteria growth?
there needs to be the right ph balance
What is the TDZ?
41 to 140 F
What is facultative?
can grow with or without oxygen
Common source of salmonella?
poultry eggs
Listeriosis?
affects young and eldrly, all foods, even ready to eat meeats require thorough cooking
Staff infection?
best stopped by good personal hygien
Clostridium?
time temperature food controls important for this
Botulism?
conroled through careful time-temperature control of foods
E coli?
raw ground beef
What causes most illlnes from viruses in food?
noravirus
How do foodborne viral disease result from?
usually fecal contamination, they do not multiply in food
Hep A?
poor personal hygiene
Where do parasites multiply?
in intestinal track
How are parasites spread?
fecal contamination of water or produce
What is infectious dose?
number of microorganisms needed to cause disease