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111 Cards in this Set

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Affirmative action is purposeful steps taken by an organization to create employment opportunities for minorities and women. It is required by law for private employers with 15 or more employees.
True or False
There has been little direct evidence of racial or ethnic discrimination in the workplace in recent years.
True or False
A key difference between affirmative action and diversity is that
Diversity has a broader focus
Generally, a diversity program is created to
create a positive work environment
Companies in several industries are now waking up to the market needs of gays and lesbians. Through diversity programs, organizations are actively recruiting and hiring gays and lesbians to
Promote business growth
According to the text, _____ typically amount to more than 90 percent of employee’s salaries.
Turnover Costs
Surface-level diversity refers to differences such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, and physical disabilities that are observable, typically unchangeable, and easy to measure.
True or False
_____ consists of differences communicated through verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as personality and attitudes that are learned only through extended interaction with others.
Deep-Level Diversity
Research has shown that performance capabilities decline with age.
True or False
_____ is the degree to which group members are psychologically attracted to working with each other to accomplish a common objective.
Social Integration
To help companies reduce age discrimination, their managers can
Ensure that younger and older workers interact with each other
Which of the following statements about disabilities is true?
A) A disability is only covered by discrimination laws when it is physical
B) A disability must be visible to the average person to be considered a true disability
C) Accommodations for disabilities needn’t be expensive
D) On average, people with disabilities earn the same amount as those without disabilities
E) Non of these statements about disabilities is true
Accommodations for disabilities needn’t be expensive
A disability is defined as a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.
True or False
To make sure that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else, organizations can
A) Make a commitment to reasonable workplace accommodations
B) Provide assistive technology
C) Actively recruit qualified workers with the disabilities
D) Provide employees with training to address incorrect stereotypes
E) Do all of these
Do all of these
Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five personality dimensions?
A) Emotional Stability
B) Extraversion
C) Conscientiousness
D) Empathy
E) Agreeableness
Which of the Big Five personality measures has the greatest impact on behavior in organizations?
A) Conscientiousness
B) Agreeableness
C) Emotional Stability
D) Extraversion
E) Openness to Experience
Conscientiousness is the degree to which someone is cooperative, polite, flexible, forgiving, good-natured, tolerant, and trusting.
True or False
People with _____ personalities believe that virtually any type of behavior is acceptable if it helps satisfy needs or accomplish goals.
_____ occurs when one person’s negativism spreads to others.
Mood Linkage
People characterized by _____ consistently notice and focus on the positive aspects of themselves and their environments, seem to be in a good mood most of the time, and are predisposed to being optimistic, cheerful, and cordial.
Positive Affectivity
Which of the following paradigms for managing diversity not only takes into account surface-level diversity, but also focuses on integrating deep-level diversity differences such as personality, attitudes, beliefs, and values into the actual work of the organization?
A) The discrimination and fairness paradigm
B) The access and legitimacy paradigm
C) The learning and effectiveness paradigm
D) The cultural stereotype paradigm
E) The personal integration paradigm
The learning and effectiveness paradigm
The promotion of women and minorities proportionate to how many apply for managerial jobs is most similar to
Affirmative Action
Wal-Mart has 65 percent female employees, and women comprise just 41.3 percent of its management trainees, 35.7 percent of its assistant managers, 22.8 percent of its co-managers, and 14.3 percent of its store managers. This indicates the giant retailer may have a(n)
Glass Ceiling
What is one strategy Wal-Mart can use to alleviate the alleged gender discrimination?
Use mentoring
The addition of the corporate compliance department reflects to the implementation of a(n)
Discrimination and fairness paradigm
What is the primary limitation of the paradigm Wal-Mart chose to use in its creation of an organizational structure in which discrimination will not be an issue?
The focus of its diversity awareness remains surface-level diversity.
A glass of water and shelter from a snowstorm would be examples of _____, and a gold necklace and tickets to see professional wrestling would not be.
Low-Order Needs
According to Alderfer’s ERG theory, the lowest-order need is
According to industrial psychology, job performance is an additive function of motivation, ability, and situational constraints.
True or False
A group of actors gather to read the critical reviews of the new play they presented to audiences last night. The actors are looking for _____ rewards.
Extrinsic rewards are
Exemplified by bonuses, trophies, and plaques
Which of the following is an example of an extrinsic reward?
A) A sense of achievement
B) A feeling of responsibility
C) A salary increase
D) Pride from accomplishing a difficult task
E) All of these
A salary increase
Which of the following is an example of an intrinsic reward?
A) A bonus
B) A contest prize
C) A sense of achievement
D) A trophy
E) All of these
A sense of achievement
Managers can motivate employees to increase their efforts by
Asking employees what their needs are then matching rewards to those needs
An intrinsic reward is a reward associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.
True or False
How do employees try to restore equity when they perceive that they have been treated unfairly?
By rationalizing inputs or outcomes
By Changing the referent
By simply quitting their jobs
By reducing the level of energy and time they input into a project
For workers who feel underpaid, creating a union at their place of employment to attain higher wages can be a mechanism for restoring equity by
Increasing Outcomes
A 2005 survey by Penn State researchers says that even when they have similar training and experience, women in information technology are paid an average of $15,000 less than men in similar positions. According to _____, the process used to make reward allocation decisions is unfair.
Procedural Justice
The _____ states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance that good performance will be rewarded, and that they are offered attractive rewards.
Expectancy Theory
Some of the basic components of equity theory are outcomes, instrumentality, and valence.
True or False
In expectancy theory, _____ is the perceived relationship between performance and rewards.
According to Don Vlcek, a former Domino’s Pizza vice president, “To achieve results, you’ve got to properly define the goal—and that’s not always easy. Vague goals are worthless. For instance, ‘Work harder!’ isn’t a goal that motivates anybody. But ‘increase productivity by 12 percent within three weeks’ – that is a clear, useful goal.” Vlcek is discussing
Goal Specificity
According to management expert Bill Roche, results from goal setting can virtually be guaranteed, but if “you have first won the hearts and minds of your workers. When they are on board with the goal—they agree that it is important and can be done—you really will get dramatic improvement.” Roche is describing
Goal Acceptance
Which of the following is NOT a basic component of goal-setting theory?
A) Performance feedback
B) Goal congruity
C) Goal specificity
D) Goal difficulty
E) Goal acceptance
Goal Congruity
One of the basic implications of expectancy theory is that if managers wish to increase the motivation level of their employees, they should take specific steps to link rewards to individual performance in a way that is clear and understandable to employees.
True or False
Paying high salaries and offering a generous benefits package indicate that Wegmans is using needs theory and satisfying _____ needs.
Part-time workers at Wegmans such as cashiers and baggers, most of whom are high-school students, can earn a scholarship bonus (for good grades) of $6,000 over their four years of high school. These bonuses are examples of _____ rewards.
Wegmans’ low turnover rate is evidence of the fact that employees perceive greater value in working for Wegmans than for its competition. This is an example of
Equity Theory
Because the company invests so heavily in employee training and then empowers employees to make decisions, Wegmans’ managers increase employee
Wegmans’ scholarship bonuses for part-time workers indicate the company is using
Positive Reinforcement
The goal at Wegmans is to create “telepathic customer service.” Employees are allowed, even encouraged to do anything they need to do to satisfy customers. In fact, chefs at Wegmans have gone to customers’ homes to fix incorrect food orders. In terms of goal-setting theory, these chefs had exceptional
Goal Acceptance
Which of the following is also called avoidance learning?
A) Positive Reinforcing
B) Negative Reinforcement
C) Punishment
D) Extinction
E) Intermittent Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
According to the trait theory, all effective leaders possess a similar set of traits or characteristics.
True or False
As a leader behavior, initiating structure is the degree to which a leader structures the roles of followers by setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks.
True or False
There is no such thing as a “best” leadership style for all situations and employees.
True or False
Which of the following is a major concern of leaders (as opposed to managers)?
A) Controlling and limiting the choices of others
B) Solving problems so that work can be done
C) Preserving the status quo
D) Inspiring and motivating others
E) A focus on productivity and efficiency
Inspiring and motivating others
Which of the following statements about leaders and managers is true?
A) Organizations need both leaders and managers
B) Leaders are critical to getting out the day-to-day work
C) Managers are critical to inspiring employees and setting long term direction
D) Most organizations place greater emphasis on leadership than on management
E) All of these statements about leaders and managers are true
Organizations need both leaders and managers
The term _____ refers to subordinate, task, or organizational characteristics that make leaders redundant or unnecessary.
Leadership Substitutes
The term _____ refers to subordinate, task, or organizational characteristics that can interfere with a leader’s actions or make it impossible for a leader to influence followers’ performance.
Leadership Neutralizers
The “great person” theory is another name for the _____ theory of leadership.
Research at three universities has confirmed that two basic leader behaviors, _____ and _____, are central to successful leadership.
Initiating Structure, Consideration
In terms of leadership behavior, the term _____ refers to the extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, supportive, and shows concern for employees.
College football coaches are often high in _____. They design ever facet of practices, set goals for their players, determine schedules, and even direct all of the plays during the games.
Initiating Structure
Which of the following is the best leadership style for all situations?
A) Team management
B) Middle of the road management
C) Authority-compliance
D) Country club management
E) None of these
None of these
Hershey and Blanchard’s situational theory states that leaders need to adjust their leadership styles to match
Worker Readiness
The two types of worker readiness identified by the Hershey and Blanchard’s situational theory are
Job readiness and psychological readiness
According to Hershey and Blanchard’s situational theory, which of the following is NOT an example of a leadership style?
A) Telling
B) Empowering
C) Participating
D) Delegating
E) Selling
The normative decision theory
Helps managers determine how much employee participation should be used in decision making
Charismatic leaders
Articulate a vision based on strongly held values
Transformational leaders
Are able to make their followers feel they are a vital part of the organization
Encourage followers to make sacrifices for the organization
Help followers see how their jobs fit with the organization’s vision
Get employees to see beyond their own needs for the good of the group
_____ is based on an exchange process, in which followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance.
Transactional Leadership
Research results consistently show:
A) Transformational leadership is much more effective on average than transactional leadership
B) Transactional leadership is much more effective on average than transformational leadership
C) Transformational and transactional leadership are both equally effective
D)Transformational leadership tends to emerge from transactional leadership
E) Transformational leadership is based on a vision is more effective than when it is based on an exchange process
Transformational leadership is much more effective on average than transactional leadership
Human resource management (HRM) is the process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people to form a qualified work force.
True or False
Job analyses, job descriptions, and job specifications help companies meet the legal requirements that their human resource decisions be job-related.
True or False
Which of the following statements about federal employment law is true?
A) This body of law has not changed during the last two decades
B) The intent of anti-discrimination law is to make factors such as gender, race, or age irrelevant in employment decisions
C) Federal law prohibits the use of gender, race, and age as the basis for employment decisions under all circumstances
D) All federal laws are administered by the Department of Labor
E) Federal employment laws do not deal with training and development activities
The intent of anti-discrimination law is to make factors such as gender, race, or age irrelevant in employment decisions
The fact a 98-pound job candidate is not hired as a dock worker to move 60-pund boxes of produce is legal as a result of
Bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs)
The only time that gender, age, religion, etc. can be used to make employment decisions is when they are considered a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ).
True or False
Disparate impact and adverse impact are defined in labor laws issued by the National Labor Relations Board.
True or False
_____ is intentional discrimination that occurs when people are purposely not given the same hiring, promotion, or membership opportunities because of their race, sex, age, ethnic group, national origin, or religious beliefs.
Disparate Treatment
_____ is unintentional discrimination in which there is a substantially different rate of selection in hiring promotion, or other employment decisions that works to the disadvantage of members of a particular race, sex, age, ethnicity, or protected group.
Adverse Impact
The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures are one of the most important federal guidelines that organizations can use to ensure they are in compliance with federal employment laws.
True or False
While _____ is a key part of determining disparate treatment, the courts and federal agencies use _____ to determine if adverse impact has occurred.
The four-fifths rule
_____ is the process of developing a pool of qualified job applicants.
A _____ is a purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job.
Job Analysis
Bona fide occupational qualifications would be most likely included in a(n)
Job Specification
_____ help companies meet the legal requirement that their human resource decisions be job related.
Job specifications
Job analysis
Job descriptions
_____ is the process of gathering information about job applicants to decide who should be offered a job.
According to the text, if an employer were to use only one type of selection test, _____ would be the one to use.
Cognitive Ability Tests
Which of the following is a direct (rather than indirect) measure of job applicants’ capability to do the job?
A) Creativity tests
B) Cognitive ability tests
C) Personality tests
D) Achievement tests
E) Work sample tests
Work sample tests
The _____ interview uses only standardized, job-related interview questions that are prepared ahead of time and asked of all candidates.
What is the primary advantage of the structured interview?
All applicants are asked the same questions
_____ means providing opportunities for employees to develop the job-specific skills, experience, and knowledge they need to do their jobs or improve their performance.
_____ is the process of identifying and prioritizing the learning needs of employees.
Needs Assessment
Under what circumstances should a needs assessment be performed prior to conducting training?
A needs assessment should be performed prior to conducting any form of training.
Which of the following is one of the ways in which training can be evaluated?
A) Reactions of employees
B) On how much employees learned
C) How much employees actually modified their on-the-job behavior
D) How job performance improved
E) All of these
All of these
Which of the following statements about performance appraisal is true?
A) Most employees and managers intensely dislike the performance appraisal process
B) Performance appraisals can be used as a basis for compensation, but not as a basis for determining who needs further training
C) Since performance appraisal is only a marginally important human resource process, any problems associated with it do not affect the organizations overall
D) Legally, a disgruntled employee cannot sue an employer on the basis of a dissatisfactory performance appraisal
E) All of the statements about performance appraisal are true
Most employees and managers intensely dislike the performance appraisal processes.
Which of the following is an example of a subject performance measure?
A) Behavioral observation scales
B) Sales quotas
C) Production rate
D) Revenues
E) Customer complaints
Customer Complaints
Which of the following is typically considered an inaccurate appraisal measure?
A) Sales quotas
B) Behavioral observation scales
C) Number of customer complaints
D) Production rate
E) Trait rating scales
Trait Rating Scales
Which of the following is a common type of rating error that managers are prone to in the performance appraisal process?
A) Standard deviation
B) Descriptive bias error
C) 80/20 error
D) Central tendency error
E) All of these
Central Tendency Error
A _____ is a performance appraisal process in which feedback is obtained from the boss, subordinates, peers and co-workers, and the employees themselves.
360-degree feedback
To improve traditional performance appraisal feedback sessions, it is recommended that managers
Base performance appraisal feedback sessions on self-appraisals
Which of the following statements about 360-degree feedback is true?
A) 360-degree feedback is most affective when used to train performance raters
B) A 360-degree feedback provides administrative feedback
C) With the 360-degree feedback approach, feedback comes from four sources
D) Employees do not provide feedback about their own efforts in the 360-degree feedback approach
E) 360-degree feedback should not be used for developmental purposes
A 360-degree feedback provides administrative feedback
_____ determine the worth of each job by determining the market value of the knowledge, skills, and requirements needed to perform it.
Job Evaluations
The term _____ refers to both the financial and nonfinancial rewards organizations give employees in exchange for their work.
Which of the following statements about employee separation is true?
A) Employee separations may be voluntary or involuntary
B) Examples of employee separation would include terminations, downsizing, retirements, and turnover
C) Wrongful discharge is a legal doctrine that requires employers to have a job-related reason for terminating an employee
D) Outplacement services provide employment-counseling services for employees faced with downsizing
E) all of these statements about employee separation are true
All of these statements about employee separation are true
To minimize the problems inherent in firing employees, managers should do what?
Before firing employees, managers should give them a change to improve
Which of the following statements regarding downsizing is true?
A) Downsizing refers to the revaluation or splitting of the organization’s common stock
B) Downsizing typically leads to increased employee morale
C) When downsizing, outplacement programs can help the company maintain a positive image in the community
D) The best strategy for downsizing is to establish a tall organizational structure as quickly as possible
E) Downsizing is seldom a planned strategy; it typically evolves as a result of environmental changes
When downsizing, outplacement programs can help the company maintain a positive image in the community.
Which of the following statements about employee turnover is true?
A) For top management, dysfunctional turnover is preferable to functional turnover
B) One of the best ways to discourage turnover is to link pay directly to performance
C) Employee turnover is the loss of employees who involuntarily chose to leave a company
D) Functional turnover requires outplacement centers
E) Sales commissions and bonuses should not be used to decrease employee turnover
One of the best ways to discourage turnover is to link pay directly to performance
_____ is the loss of high-performing employees who voluntarily choose to leave a company.
Dysfunctional Turnover
Despite the layoffs and plant closings that have eliminated thousands of jobs over the past two years, the Louisiana chemical industry faces a looming shortage of process operators and is hiring new ones as fast as it can. The average age of a plant operator is 50. A wave of retirements in coming years will create openings for as many as 10,000 new operators in the chemical industry. The retirement of the current operators is an example of
Dysfunctional Turnover
Which of the following is an internal recruiting method?
A) Employee referrals
B) Career paths
C) Walk-ins
D) Employment services
E) Advertisements
Career Paths