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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
INTERNAL FORCES FOR CHANGE
ORIGINATE PRIMARILY FROM THE INTERNAL OPERATIONS OF THE ORGANIZATION OR FROM THE IMPACT OF EXTERNAL CHANGES
CALM WATERS METAPHOR
CHANGE COMES IN THE FORM OF AN OCCASIONAL STORM
CHANGE TECHNOLOGY
ENCOMPASSES MODIFICATIONS IN THE WAY WORK IS PERFORMED OR THE METHODS & EQUIPMENT THAT ARE USED
AUTOMATION
TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE THAT REPLACES CERTAIN TASKS DONE BY PEOPLE WITH MACHINES
MANAGERIAL ACTIONS TO REDUCE RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
1.EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION
2.PARTICIPATION
3.FACILITATION & SUPPORT
4.NEGOTIATION
5.MANIPULATION & COOPTATION
6.COERCION
ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (OD)
TECHNIQUES OR PROGRAMS TO CHANGE PEOPLE & THE NATURE & QUALITY OF INTERPERSONAL WORK RELATIONSHIPS
2 CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR POTENTIAL STRESS TO BECOME ACTUAL STRESS
1.UNCERTAINTY OVER THE OUTCOME
2.OUTCOME MUST BE IMPORTANT
CHANGE AGENTS
PEOPLE WHO ACT AS CATALYSTS & ASSUME THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR MANAGING THE CHANGE PROCESS
DRIVING FORCES
FORCES THAT DRIVE CHANGE & DIRECT BEHAVIOR AWAY FROM THE STATUS QUO
STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF ORGANIZATION
1.WORK SPECIALIZATION
2.DEPARTMENTALIZATION
3.CHAIN OF COMMAND
4.SPAN OF CONTROL
5.CENTRALIZATION & DECENTRALIZATION
6.FORMALIZATION
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
AY ALTERATIONS IN PEOPLE, STRUCTURE, OR TECHNOLOGY
RESTRAINING FORCES
FORCES THAT RESIST CHANGE & PUSH BEHAVIOR TOWARD THE STATUS QUO
FORCES FOR CHANGE
1.EXTERNAL FORCES
2.INTERNAL FORCES
3.THE MANAGER
2 VIEWS OF THE CHANGE PROCESS
1.THE CALM WATERS METAPHOR
2.WHITE-WATER RAPIDS METAPHOR
TYPES OF CHANGE
1.STRUCTURE
2.TECHNOLOGY
3.PEOPLE
EXTERNAL FORCES FOR CHANGE
1.MARKETPLACE
2.GOVERNMENTAL LAWS & REGULATIONS
3.TECHNOLOGY
4.LABOR MARKETS
5.ECONOMIC CHANGES
CHANGING STRUCTURE
ANY ALTERATION IN AUTHORITY RELATIONS, COORDINATION MECHANISMS, DEGREE OF CENTRALIZATION, OR JOB REDESIGN
MAJOR TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES
1.INTRODUCTION OF NEW EQUIPMENT
2.TOOLS
3.WORK METHODS
5.AUTOMATION
6.COMPUTERIZATION
3 REASONS INDIVIDUALS RESIST CHANGE
1.UNCERTAINTY
2.CONCERN OVER PERSONAL LOSS
3.BELIEF THAT THE CHANGE IS NOT IN THE ORGANIZATIONS BEST INTEREST
TODAY'S CHANGE ISSUES
1.CHANGING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES
2.CONTINUOUS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT VERSUS PROCESS REENGINEERING
3.HANDLING EMPLOYEE STRESS
FAVORABLE CONDITIONS THAT MIGHT FACILITATE CULTURAL CHANGE
1.DRAMATIC CRISIS OCCURS
2.LEADERSHIP CHANGES HANDS
3.ORGANIZATION IS YOUNG & SMALL
4.CULTURE IS WEAK
THE ROAD TO CULTURAL CHANGE
1.CONDUCT A CULTURAL ANALYSIS
2.MAKE IT CLEAR THAT THE ORGANIZATION'S SURVIVAL IS THREATENED
3.APPOINT NEW LEADERSHIP
4.INITIATE A REORGANIZATION
5.INTRODUCE NEW STORIES
6.CHANGE THE SELECTION PROCESS & REWARD SYSTEMS
CONTINUOUS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS
CHANGE EFFORTS ARE FOCUSED ON FIXING & IMPROVING CURRENT WORK ACTIVITIES, CONTINUALLY IMPROVING ACTIVITIES THAT ARE BASICALLY OK
PROCESS REENGINEERING
FOCUSES ON QUANTUM CHANGES BY THROWING OUT THE OLD WAYS OF DOING THINGS & STARTING OVER IN REDESIGNING THE WAY WORK IS DONE
3 CATEGORIES OF STRESS SYMPTOMS
1.PHYSIOLOGICAL
2.PSYCHOLOGICAL
3.BEHAVIORAL
2 PROBLEMS RAISED BY STRESS FROM AN EMPLOYEES PERSONAL LIFE
1.DIFFICULT FOR THE MANAGER TO CONTROL DIRECTLY
2.ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
3 APPROACHES FOR A MANAGER TO CONTROL STRESS
1.EMPLOYEE COUNSELING
2.TIME MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
3.WELLNESS PROGRAMS
CREATIVITY
ABILITY TO COMBINE IDEAS IN A UNIQUE WAY OR TO MAKE UNUSUAL ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN IDEAS
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INNOVATIVE CULTURE
1.ACCEPTANCE OF AMBIGUITY
2.TOLERANCE OF THE IMPRACTICAL
3.LOW EXTERNAL CONTROLS
4.TOLERANCE OF RISK
5.TOLERANCE OF CONFLICT
6.FOCUS ON ENDS RATHER THATN MEANS
7.OPEN-SYSTEM FOCUS
IDEA CHAMPION
INDIVIDUALS WHO ACTIVELY & ENTHUSIASTICALLY SUPPORT NEW IDEAS, BUILD SUPPORT, OVERCOME RESISTANCE, & ENSURE THAT INNOVATIONS ARE IMPLEMENTED
3 SETS OF VARIABLES TO STIMULATE INNOVATION
1.ORGANIZATION'S STRUCTURE
2.CULTURE
3.HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES
3-STEP DESCRIPTION OF THE CHANGE PROCESS (CALM WATERS METAPHOR)
1.UNFREEZE THE STATUS QUO
2.CHANGE TO A NEW STATE
3.REFREEZE TO MAKE THE CHANGE PERMANENT
TYPES OF INTERNAL FORCES
1.STRATEGY
2.WORKFORCE
3.EQUIPMENT
4.EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES
WHITE-WATER RAPIDS METAPHOR
CHANGE IS A NATURAL STATE & MANAGING CHANGE IS A CONTINUAL PROCESS
STRUCTURAL VARIABLES
1.ORGANIC STRUCTURES POSITIVELY INFLUENCE INNOVATION
2.EASY AVAILABILITY OF PLENTIFUL RESOURCES PROVIDES A KEY BUILDING BLOCK FOR INNOVATION
3.FREQUENT INTER-UNIT COMMUNICAION HELPS BREAK DOWN BARRIERS TO INNOVATION
STRESS
A DYNAMIC CONDITION A PERSON FACES WHEN CONFRONTED WITH AN OPPORTUNITY, CONSTRAINT, OR DEMAND RELATED TO WHAT HE OR SHE DESIRES & FOR WHICH THE OUTCOME IS PERCEIVED TO BE BOTH UNCERTAIN & IMPORTANT
INNOVATION
THE PROCESS OF TAKING A CREATIVE IDEA & TURNING IT INTO A USEFUL PRODUCT, SERVICE, OR WORK METHOD
CHANGING PEOPLE
REFERS TO CHANGES IN EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES, EXPECTATIONS, PERCEPTIONS, & BEHAVIOR