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54 Cards in this Set

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ORGANIZING
THE PROCESS OF CREATING AN ORGANIZATION'S STRUCTURE
ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN
WHEN MANAGERS DEVELOP OR CHANGE AN ORGANIZATION'S STRUCTURE
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
THE FORMAL FRAMEWORK BY WHICH JOB TASKS ARE DIVIDED, GROUPED, & COORDINATED
6 KEY ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN
1.WORK SPECIALIZATION
2.DEPARTMENTALIZATION
3.CHAIN OF COMMAND
4.SPAN OF CONTROL
5.CENTRALIZATION & DECENTRALIZATION
6.FORMALIZATION
WORK SPECIALIZATION
DESCRIBES THE DEGREE TO WHICH TASKS IN AN ORGANIZATION ARE DIVIDED INTO SEPARATE JOBS
PURPOSES OF ORGANIZING
1.DIVIDES WORK TO BE DONE INTO SPECIFIC JOBS
2.ASSIGNS TASKS ASSOCIATED WITH INDIVIDUAL JOBS
3.COORDINATES ORGANIZATIONAL TASKS
4.CLUSTERS JOBS INTO UNITS
5.ESTABLISHES RELATIONSHIPS AMONG INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, & DEPARTMENTS
6.ESTABLISHES FORMAL LINES OF AUTHORITY
7.ALLOCATES & DEPLOYS ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES
HUMAN DISECONOMIES FROM WORK SPECIALIZATION
1.BOREDOM
2.FATIGUE
3.STRESS
4.POOR QUALITY
5.INCREASED ABSENTEEISM
6.HIGHER TURNOVER
DEPARTMENTALIZATION
THE BASIS BY WHICH JOBS ARE GROUPED TOGETHER
FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTALIZATION
GROUPS JOBS BY FUNCTIONS PERFORMED
5 COMMON FORMS OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION
1.FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTALIZATION
2.GEOGRAPHICAL DEPARTMENTALIZATION
3.PRODUCT DEPARTMENTALIZATION
4.PROCESS DEPARTMENTALIZATION
5.CUSTOMER DEPARTMENTALIZATION
PRODUCT DEPARTMENTALIZATION
GROUPS JOBS BY PRODUCT LINE
GEOGRAPHICAL DEPARTMENTALIZATION
GROUPS JOBS ON THE BASIS OF TERRITORY OR GEOGRAPHY
PROCESS DEPARTMENTALIZATION
GROUPS JOBS ON THE BASIS OF PRODUCT OR CUSTOMER FLOW
CUSTOMER DEPARTMENTALIZATION
GROUPS JOBS ON THE BASIS OF COMMON CUSTOMERS WHO HAVE COMMON NEEDS OR PROBLEMS THAT CAN BEST BE MET BY HAVING SPECIALISTS FOR EACH
CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS
GROUPS OF INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE EXPERTS IN VARIOUS SPECIALTIES & WHO WORK TOGETHER
CHAIN OF COMMAND
THE CONTINUOUS LINE OF AUTHORITY THAT EXTENDS FROM UPPER ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS TO THE LOWEST LEVELS AND CLARIFIES WHO REPORTS TO WHOM
AUTHORITY
THE RIGHTS INHERENT IN A MANAGERIAL POSITION TO TELL PEOPLE WHAT TO DO & EXPECT THEM TO DO IT
RESPONSIBILITY
THE OBLIGATION OR EXPECTATION TO PERFORM ANY ASSIGNED DUTIES
UNITY OF COMMAND
THE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLE THAT EACH PERSON SHOULD REPORT TO ONLY 1 MANAGER
SPAN OF CONTROL
THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES A MANAGER CAN EFFECTIVELY CONTROL
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE APPROPRIATE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES THAT A MANAGER CAN EFFICIENTLY & EFFECTIVELY MANAGE
1.THE SKILLS & ABILITIES OF THE MANAGER
2.THE EMPLOYEES & CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WORK BEING DONE
WIDE SPANS OF CONTROL
1.THE WIDER OR LARGER THE SPAN THE MORE EFFICIENT THE ORGANIZATION
2.THE TREND IN RECENT YEARS HAS BEEN TOWARD LARGER SPANS OF CONTROL
3.WIDE SPANS ARE CONSISTENT WITH MANAGERS' EFFORTS TO REDUCE COSTS, SPEED UP DECISION MAKING, INCREASE FLEXIBILITY, GET CLOSER TO CUSTOMERS, & EMPOWER EMPLOYEES
CENTRALIZATION
THE DEGREE TO WHICH DECISION MAKING IS CONCENTRATED AT A SINGLE POINT IN THE ORGANIZATION
2 MODES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN
1.MECHANISTIC
2.ORGANIC
DECENTRALIZATION
THE DEGREE TO WHICH LOWER-LEVEL EMPLOYEES PROVIDE INPUT OR ACTUALLY MAKE DECISIONS
FORMALIZATION
THE DEGREE TO WHICH JOBS WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION ARE STANDARDIZED AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOR IS GUIDED BY RULES & PROCEDURES
MECHANISTIC ORGANIZATION
AN ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN THAT'S RIGID & TIGHTLY CONTROLLED
CHARACTERISTICS OF MECHANISTIC ORGANIZATIONS
1.HIGH SPECIALIZATION
2.RIGID DEPARTMENTALIZATION
3.NARROW SPANS OF CONTROL
4.HIGH FORMALIZATION
5.LIMITED INFORMATION NETWORK
7.LITTLE PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING BY LOWER-LEVEL EMPLOYEES
ORGANIC ORGANIZATION
AN ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN THAT'S HIGHLY ADAPTIVE & FLEXIBLE
CONTINGENT FACTORS APPROPRIATE STRUCTURE
1.ORGANIZATION'S STRATEGY
2.SIZE
3.TECHNOLOGY
4.DEGREE OF ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTY
3 DIMENSIONS OF CURRENT STRATEGY FRAMEWORKS
1.INNOVATION
2.COST MINIMIZATION
3.IMITATION
INNOVATION
THE ORGANIZATION'S PURSUIT OF MEANINGFUL & UNIQUE INNOVATIONS
COST MINIMIZATION
THE ORGANIZATION'S PURSUIT OF TIGHTLY CONTROLLED COSTS
IMITATION
REFLECTS AN ORGANIZATION'S SEEKING TO MINIMIZE RISK & MAXIMIZE PROFIT OPPORTUNITIES BY COPYING THE MARKET LEADERS
3 CATEGORIES OF TECHNOLOGY & STRUCTURE
1.UNIT PRODUCTION
2.MASS PRODUCTION
3.PROCESS PRODUCTION
UNIT PRODUCTION
THE PRODUCTION OF ITEMS IN UNITS OR SMALL BATCHES
MASS PRODUCTION
LARGE-BATCH MANUFACTURING
PROCESS PRODUCTION
THE PRODUCTION OF ITEMS IN CONTINUOUS PROCESSES
COMMON ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGNS
1.TRADITIONAL
2.CONTEMPORARY
TRADITIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGNS (MECHANISTIC)
1.SIMPLE STRUCTURE
2.FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE
3.DIVISIONAL STRUCTURE
SIMPLE STRUCTURE
ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN WITH LOW DEPARTMENTALIZATION, WIDE SPANS OF CONTROL, AUTHORITY CENTRALIZED IN A SINGLE PERSON, & LITTLE FORMALIZATION
FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE
ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN THAT GROUPS RELATED OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALTIES TOGETHER, DEPARTMENTALIZATION APPLIED TO THE ENTIRE ORGANIZATION
DIVISIONAL STRUCTURE
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE MADE UP OF SEPARATE UNITS OR DIVISIONS. EACH UNIT OR DIVISION HAS LIMITED AUTONOMY, WITH A DIVISION MANAGER RESPONSIBLE FOR PERFORMANCE & WHO HAS STRATEGIC AUTHORITY OVER HIS UNIT
CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGNS
1.TEAM-BASED STRUCTURES
2.MATRIX STRUCTURE
3.AUTONOMOUS INTERNAL UNITS
4.BOUNDARYLESS ORGANIZATION
5.LEARNING ORGANIZATION
TEAM-BASED STRUCTURE
AN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE IN WHICH THE ENTIRE ORGANIZATION IS MADE UP OF WORK GROUPS OR TEAMS
MATRIX STRUCTURE
AN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE THAT ASSIGNS SPECIALISTS FROM DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTS TO WORK ON 1 OR MORE PROJECTS BEING LED BY PROJECT MANAGERS
2 MANAGERS OF EMPLOYEES IN A MATRIX ORGANIZATION
1.FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENT MANAGER
2.PRODUCT OR PROJECT MANAGER
PROJECT STRUCTURE
MORE "ADVANCED TYPE" OF MATRIX WHERE EMPLOYEES CONTINUOUSLY WORK ON PROJECTS, HAS NO FORMAL DEPARTMENTS TO WHICH EMPLOYEES RETURN AT THE COMPLETION OF A PROJECT
AUTONOMOUS INTERNAL UNITS
SEPARATE DECENTRALIZED BUSINESS UNITS, EACH WITH ITS OWN PRODUCTS, CLIENTS, COMPETITORS, & PROFIT GOALS
BOUNDARYLESS ORGANIZATION
AN ORGANIZATION WHOSE DESIGN IS NOT DEFINED BY, OR LIMITED TO, THE HORIZONTAL, VERTICAL, OR EXTERNAL BOUNDARIES IMPOSED BY A STRUCTURE
IDEAL BOUNDARYLESS ORGANIZATION
1.ELIMINATE THE CHAIN OF COMMAND
2.HAVE APPROPRIATE SPANS OF CONTROL
3.REPLACE DEPARTMENTS WITH EMPOWERED TEAMS
LEARNING ORGANIZATION
AN ORGANIZATION THAT HAS DEVELOPED THE CAPACITY TO CONTINUOUSLY ADAPT & CHANGE BECAUSE ALL MEMBERS TAKE AN ACTIVE ROLE IN IDENTIFYING & RESOLVING WORK-RELATED ISSUES
IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF A LEARNING ORGANIZATION
1.ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN
2.INFORMATION SHARING
3.LEADERSHIP
4.CULTURE
2 POPULAR DEPARTMENTALIZATION TRENDS
1.CUSTOMER DEPARTMENTALIZATION IS INCREASINGLY BEING USED AS AN APPROACH TO BETTER MONITOR CUSTOMERS' NEEDS & TO BE BETTER ABLE TO RESPOND TO CHANGES IN THOSE NEEDS
2.MANAGES ARE USING CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS