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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the phylogenetic divisions of the cerebral cortex? Include # of layers for each division.
1. Archicortex (3 layers)
2. Paleocortex (3 layers)
3. Neocortex (6 layers)
The hippocampus is involved in which cortex division
The archicortex
The olfactory cortex is part of which cortex division
Flavor = ?
Olfactory + Taste
Loss of olfaction often described as loss of what?
Loss of taste
What is responsible for regeneration in the olfactory epithelium, and what does it regenerate?
Basal cells

Bipolar neurons
How does the olfactory system project to the cortex?

Without a thalamus
What is an uncus and what is it composed of?
Primary olfactory cortex

1. Entorhinal cortex
2. Pyriform
What are the three types of connections that go on in the cerebral cortex?
1. Commissural
2. Association
3. Projections
List the component bundles of the associational connections.
1. Uncinate Fasciculus
2. Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus
3. Arcuate Fasciculus
List the component bundles of the Commissural connections.
1. Corpus Callosum
2. Anterior Commissure
Most (90%) of cortical connections occur where and through what connections?
Are internal

Occur via Commissural (interhemispheric) and Association (intrahemispheric) connections.
Describe projection fibers and how much they make up the cortical connections.
External cortical projections

10% of cortical connection
What do Projection fibers pass through?
1. Internal Capsule
(Medial Forebrain Bundle)

2. Retrolenticular Portion
( Optic Radiation)

3. Sublenticular Portion
(Auditory Radiation)
List the components of the Projection connections.
1. Ascending sensory pathway
2. Descending motor pathway
List some functions of ARAS.
1. Battery for stimulating and maintaining conscious state.

2. Sleep regulation
ARAS is usually a target of what medically?
General Anesthetics
Lesions in the ARAS my result in what?
List the two nuclei of the dorsal thalamus involved in thalamic connections of the associational cortex.
1. Pulvinar nuclei
2. Dorsomedial (DM) nuclei
The pulvinar of the dorsal thalamus is responsible for what?
Sensory analyzer
The Dorsomedial nuclei of the dorsal thalamus is responsible for what?
Motor analyzer

Memory processing
In the neocortical areas, describe the determination of thickness and resulting appearance.
Despite being 6 layers all over, not the same thickness.

Motor areas (lots of pyramidal cells) are thick

Sensory areas (lots of granule cells) are thin

Associational areas look a bit between motor and sensory areas.

All areas look different and it mimic the differences in their function.
List the major NT's of the cerebral cortex and describe whether it is excitatory or inhibitory.
Glutamate (excitatory)
Aspartate (excitatory)

GABA (inhibitory)
The neocortical brain is also called what?
Intellectual brain
Where is the neocortical brain located?
Lateral portion brain
The limbic brain is also known as what?
The emotional brain
Where is the limbic brain located?
Medial portion of brain
Describe the layering of the limbic lobe.
Transitional between 3 and 6 layers
What is located inside the neocortical brain?
Motor and Sensory analyzers
What comprises the limbic lobe?
1. Subcallosal
2. Subcallosal area
3. Cingulate
4. Parahippocampus
5. Hippocampus
6. Dentate Gyri
Functions of the lateral brain. x6
1. Language
2. Self Awareness
3. Cognitive
4. Abstract
5. Logic
6. Long term Adaptation
Functions of the medial brain. x4
1. Instinctive behavior
2. Survival mechanisms
3. Emotions
4. Short term adaptation
Functions of left hemisphere. x5
1. Language
2. Analytical analysis
3. Motor organization/performance
4. Auditory analysis
5. Positive personality
Functions of right hemisphere.
1. Visual Analysis
2. Spatial / Temporal
3. Music
4. Sense of humor
5. Creativity
6. Aggressive emotion
7. Negative personality
Human consciousness comes from where?
Communication between two hemispheres
Alien hand syndrome is caused by an occlusion where?
Anterior Cerebral Artery
What is the symptom of Alien hand syndrome?
Contralateral hand executes involuntary, but often purposeful movements
In terms of anatomical positioning, where would you find the motor analyzer and the sensory analyzer in the lateral brain?
Motor is anterior

Sensory is posterior
What is the primary zone of the sensory analyzer responsible for?
What is the secondary zone of the sensory analyzer responsible for?
What is the tertiary zone of the sensory analyzer responsible for?
Complex analysis
What is the components of the association cortex?
Secondary and Tertiary Zone of the sensory analyzer