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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Deglutition
Swallowing.
Lipase
Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.
Stomach
Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. It is divided into the fundus, body, and antrum (distal portion).
Esophagus
Tube connecting the throat to the stomach.
Enzyme
A chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes help in the breakdown of complex foods to simpler foods.
Palate
Roof of the mouth. The hard palate is anterior to the soft palate.
Glucose
Simple sugar.
Fatty acids
Substances produced when fats are digested.
Triglycerides
Large fat molecules composed of three molecules of fatty acids with one molecule of glycerol.
Parotid gland
Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.
Liver
A large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. The liver secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn-out red blood cells. The normal adult liver weighs
2.5 - 3 lbs.
Common bile duct
Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum.
Uvula
Soft tissue hanging from the soft palate into the mouth.
Pharynx
Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose.
Gallbladder
Small sac under the liver, stores bile.
Digestion
Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms.
Peristalsis
Rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and other tubular structures. Peristalsis moves the contents through the GI tract at different rates; stomach (0.5 to 2 hours), small intestine (2 to 6 hours), and colon (6-72 hours).
Ileum
Third part of the small intestine.
Duodenum
First part of the small intestine. Duo=2, den=10, the duodenum measures 12 inches in length.
Pyloric sphincter
Ring of muscle at the distal region of the stomach, where it joins the duodenum.
Alimentary Canal
The digestive tract (canal); aliment means food.
ABSORPTION
Passage of materials through the walls of the intestine into the bloodstream.
Villi
Microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.
Dentin
Major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
Mastication
Chewing
Pulp
Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.
Proteases
Enzymes that digest protein.
Portal vein
Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestine.
Hydrochloric acid
Substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.
Amylase
Enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch.
Colon
Large intestine; cecum, ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and rectum.
Rectum
Last section of the colon.
Rugae
Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.
Amino Acids
Small substances that are the building blocks of proteins and are produced when proteins are digested.
Jejunum
Second part of the small intestine.
Enamel
Hard, outermost layer of a tooth.
Anus
Opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.
Papillae
Small elevations on the tongue.
Bilirubin
Pigment released by the liver in bile; produced from the destruction of hemoglobin, a blood protein (-globin). In the intestine, bilirubin is degraded by bacteria to a variety of pigments that give stool (feces) its brown color.
Insulin
Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar into cells from the blood and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver.
Emulsification
Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thus increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
Lower esophageal sphincter
Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. Also called cardiac sphincter.
Saliva
Digestive juice produced by salivary glands.
Appendix
Blind pouch hanging from the first part of the colon (cecum). It literally means hanging (pend/o) on (ap-). Usually found in the RLQ.
Bile
Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It is composed of bile pigments, cholesterol, and bile salts.
Salivary glands
Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands.
Glycogen
Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.
Bowel
Intestine.
Cecum
First part of the large intestine.
Sigmoid colon
Lower part of the colon; shaped like an S.
Canine teeth
Pointed, dog-like (canine) teeth, next to (distal to) the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth.
Incisor
One of four front teeth in the dental arch.
Sphincter
Ring of muscles within a tube.
Pancreas
Organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods).