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15 Cards in this Set

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phylum proifera
"to have pores" = Sponges
- mulitcellular, but a loose aggregation, no tissues
- not mobile as adults
- asexual and sexually reproduce
- they produce a wide array of complex chemicals, which have very complex chemical structure
phylum cnidaria
"to sting, like a nettle" = jellyfish, sea anemones and corals
- multicellular, with 2-3 tissues (germ layers)
- 3rd tissue missing, but is replace by non-cellular "jelly" = mesoglea
- special stinging cells = cnidoblasts
- inject chemical toxins
- 2 body forms: Polyp and Medusae
- polyp forms are colonial and can produce asexually
phylum platyhelminthes
"flat, worms" = flatworms, flukes, and tapeworms
- all 3 embryonic germ layers (ecto-, meso-, endoderm)
- 2 way digestive tract
- nervous system, circulatory system
- no body cavity = acoelomate
- phenomenal = powers of regeneration
phylum nemertinea
"like a ribbon" = ribbon worms
- "false cavity" = pseudocoel between endo and mesoderm
- often living in marine muds and sands
phylum nematoda
"nemo" = round = roundworms
- pseudocoelomate
- most abundant worm
- most known: parasitic forms = human problems
- humans are very susceptible
phylum mollusca
"molli" = soft = snails, slugs, octopus and squid, clams
- 2nd largest invertebrate group
- usually with hard calcium-carbonate shell
- true body cavity = coelom
- radula for freeding and protection/defense
- increasing complexity of the nervous system
- gills
-nephridia = beginning of a kidney system
phylum annelida
"annulus" = ring = truly segmented worms, e.g. earthworms, leeches
- segmented both internally and externally
- coelom, but divided in compartments by metameres
- blood flows in vessels
onychophorans
a group that acts as a link between annelids and "arthropods"
phylum anthropoda
"anthro" = jointed; "poda" = legs or feet = crabs, shrimps, insects, spiders
- largest invertebrate group
- largest group in the kingdom animalia
- 3 subphyla which are now new phyla
- small size and specialization in diet and habitiat
- exoskeleton = chitin (carbohydrate)
- body segmented externally, but often fused together
- coelom
- jointed appendages
- Hormones which regulate different life stages, e.g. butterfly
- flight
- compound eye
phylum echinodermata
sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars
- NOT bilaterally symmetric as adults, only in larval stage, adults = radially symmetric
- coelomate and "internal" skeleton
- water vascular system with tube feet
- pentamerous radial symmetry
- ability to regenerate lost parts
- deuterstome
phylum chordata
- 3 subphyla that are now new phyla
- deuterostome
- notochord (a "backbone" or support structure in those with no skeleton)
- dorsal, hollow nerve cord
- pharyngeal (by the throat) gill slits
- post-anal tail
- phylum urochordata = sea squirts or tunicates
- phylum cephalochordata = odd group
- phylum vertebrata = horse, fish, whales, etc
phylum vertebrata
- class: "cartilaginous fish" = sharks - all the skeletons are made of cartilage
- class: "true bony fish" = ossified = not only caritlage but also calcium phosphate bones
- class amphibia = frogs, toads, salamanders
- class reptilia = lizards, snakes, etc - development of "amniotic egg" and dry scales
- class aves = birds - also amniotic egg and feathers, tendency towards bipedalism
- class mammalia = mammals with hair, mammary glands, endothermic, homeothermic
monotreme
egg laying mammals
marsupial
give birth to under developed young, e.g. kangeroos
placental
normal "human-like" birth