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25 Cards in this Set

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What are the characteristics of living things?
(1) Highly Organized = both large and small organisms are complex and organized.
(2) Maintain themselves over time = the grow and develop which leads to reproduction.
(3) Take in, transform, and utilize energy = Energy is the ability to do work
(4) Maintain homeostasis = the optimum range that a cell or organism works best.
(5) Living things respond to stimuli = both from within and from outside sources.
(6) Able to adapt to environmental change = this may be quick or slow. There are limits to how much change they can withstand.
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Energy can be transform from one form to another but is never destroyed.
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
All processes in the universe and the utilitzation (entropy) of that energy runs to disorder. Not all sources of energy are usable. Ex. The number of cells in humans do not change, the number does not grow, thus they work against the 2nd law as long as possible.
Postively charged particles found in the nucleus of the atom. The number of protons = the atomic number of an atom.
Particles with no charge that are found in the nuclues of the atom.
Negatively charged particles in an atom. For every positive charge, there must be an equal negative charge. # of protons = # of electrons.
Atomic Weight
the sum of the protons and neutrons.
When there is a variable # of neutrons. Different isotopes of an element have varying numbers of neutrons but the same number of protons.
Energy Levels or Orbitals
an orbital is the volume of space in which an electron can be found.
1. The first orbital is a sphere around the nucleus capable of holding 2 electrons.
2. The 2nd orbital is a sphere and 3 dumbbell shaped spaces that can hold up to 8 electrons.
3. The third can also hold up to 8.
Quantum is the energy required to move electrons from 1 orbital to another. When electrons move down an orbital, they release energy. The more room there are for more electrons the more reactive the atom is. Atoms like their outer most energy level to be filled. Bonds are the attraction of atoms that can fill the outer most energy levels.
Oxidation/Reduction Reactions
This is an energy transformation reaction. Elements that give away electrons are oxidized. Elements that gain electrons are reduced, they become more negative. Hydrogens are often involved because it has only 1 electron. Thus these reactions usually result in a redistribution of hydrogen molecules.
6 Most Important Elements
1. Carbon: 4 electrons
2. Hydrogen: 1 electron
3. Oxygen: 5 electrons
4. Nitrogen: 6 electrons
5. Phosphorus: 5 electrons
6. Sulfur: 6 electrons
Ionic Bonds
When one element is giving up electrons. (Think Sodium and chlorine, Na+CL-)
Covalent Bonds
When elements share electrons. (Think H20) When 2 or more atoms combine in a covalent reaction, the result is a molecule.
Polar Covalent Bonds
A bond in which elements share electrons but each end of the molecule has a charge. In an H2O molecule the H side is more positive and the O side is more negative.
Organic Molecules
Organic molecules have a lot of carbon in them. Ex. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acis, and Proteins
Condensation Reactions
When macromolecules are combined. (ex. 2 monosaccharides) In this instance water is given off, thus condensation reaction.
Hydrolysis Reaction
When a macromolecule is split into two and water is required to complete the reaction. (ex. 1 disaccharide splitting into 2 monosaccharides.)
They are carbohydrates. The bonds between the rings represent a source of energy for saccharides.
1. Monosaccharides: simple sugars and the building blocks of carbohydrates. It is a ring of 6 carbons. Can be converted into ATP = energy to do work. (ex. glucose. In order to turn glucose into ATP we need to oxidize glucose. 1 string of glucose can get you 38-36 ATP.)
2. Disaccharides: have 2 carbon rings and are more for transport. Disaccharides are split into monosaccharides to produce ATP. (ex. sucrose and lactose)
3. Polysaccharides: Many carbon rings. (exs. glycogen = stored in the liver when they are not needed, starch = common in plants, cellulose = cell wall in plants, chitin = exoskeleton.)
Amino Acids, -COOH with N
All amino acids have an amino group (NH2) and a carboxyl group (CO2H)attached to the central carbon. Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 types of amino acids which produce an infinite number of proteins because a protein can be any sequence of amino acids.
Fatty Acids and Triglycerides
The building blocks of lipids are 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule (triglyceride). Glycerol = a carboxyl group (CO2) and a H-C-CH2 bond and a carbon chain. There are 3 different types of fatty acid carbon chains. The double and triple bonds in the carbon chain = unsaturated. Single bonds = saturated. The more double and triple bonds, the more energy is released when you break those bonds, giving you more energy.
The building blocks for DNA. They consist of (1) a phosphate in the form of a phosphoric acid, (2) a sugar = a 5 carbon ring, ribose for RNA, deoxyribose for DNA, (3) nitrogenous bases = DNA: A, T, G, C RNA: A, U, G, C
They are our most important source of energy. There are minosaccarides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. We cannot digest complex carbohydrates such as chitin and cellulose. We do eat glycogen and starch.
They are more formally defined as a substance such as a fat, oil or wax that dissolves in alcohol but not in water. They have a 2 fold function: (1) energy, (2) structural. They have a greater # of carbon-hydrogen bonds and less oxygen. They form cholesterol which we need for hormones whihc produce testosterone and estrogen.
A protein is a large polymer of amino acids, composed of one or more polypeptide chains.
Primary Structure: the linear sequence of amino acids
Secondary Structure: the chain is folded at specific points (keratin in hair and nails)
Tertiary Structure: the chain is folded a 2nd time. (actin, muscle cells)
Quaternary structure: the chain is folded again. (hemoglobin)
Some proteins are nezymes which catalyze (enhance) chemical reactions. Glycoproteins act as natural anti-freeze in the body. Structural proteins make up things like hair.
Nucleic Acids
Their transmission from one generation to the next is the basis of heredity. The two main types, DNA and RNA, are composed of similiar materials but differ in structure and function. Both are long chains of repeating nucleotides. The sequence of purines and pyrimidines (bases) - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and either thymine (T in DNA) or uracil (U in RNA) - in the nucleotides, in groups of three (tiplets, or codons) constitutes the genetic code.