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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the INNATE behavior mean?
to varying degrees built into the structure and function of the nervous system via "programming" by genetic information
What are the important characteritics of FIXED ACTION PATTERNS?
1. Species specific
2. Stereotyped
3. Largely Unlearned (inherited)- does not mean that a FAP is non-modifiable
"Plan of Attack"
1.Make ethogram-catalog or description of behavior
2.sort out inherited from learned from taxis
3.characterize stimuli involved in eliciting FAP
4.determine the role of "internal state" -developmental or 'motivational'
What is DEPRIVATION EXPERIMENT and what are the examples?
-strong evidence for genetic control
-to determine if a behavior is learned or inherited (usually require releasers, given at an appropriate time in animal's dev)

ex1. Gwinner-shrikes and wasps. Correct, complete FAP for wasp capture and sting removal
ex2. Eibl-Eibesfeldt-squirrels and nuts. Naive squirrels "buried" nuts on the wire floor of their cages without prior experience
ex3. Lorenz-egg retrieval by greylag geese. Movement completed oeven w/o egg
What is Taxis?
the orientation of the FAP movment (towards eggs, wasps,or nuts)
What is Releasers?
(sign stimuli)
environmental stimuli which "trigger" the FAP, ordinarily does not appear otherwise
-only a small, specific part of avilable sensory input
what is heterogeneous summation?
more than 1 releaser will affect a FAP (inputs are additive)
Young animals often will not perform adult FAPs even with appropriate releasers
What is Phenotype?
a product of both genotype and environment
What is polygenic?
behaviors are controlled by Many genes
4 Modes of Genetic Analysis of Behavior
1.Artificial selection experiments; inbreeding domestication. (mating behaviro in Drosophila; social behavior of domestic animals are some of many exs)2.Study of hybrids
3.Study closely related individuals within a species(quantitative genetics)
4.Modern molecular techiniques (knockouts, inserts, etc)
Selection flavors INHERITED behaviors when:
1.There is no chance for learning
2.Mistakes are dangerous and must be avoided.
3.Little variation is present in the "target" of the behavior - highly predictable
What are the problems with inherited behavior?
1. Difficult to adapt to new situations (only possible through evolution of particular trait, if behavior invariant)
2.Vulnerable to exploitation if predators or parasites evolve correct responses
Selection favors learned behaviors when:
1.the behavior concerns an unpredictale "target"-one with high variance
2.the risks of learning are not great
3.Possibility of a mistake is low
4.envionmental variablility or change opens new resource "windfalls".
Problems with learnd behavior?
1.Mistakes are possible and can damage fitness. Selection produce specific limits to the ability to learn
What are the problems with imprinting?
-depending on species, only possible within restricted time period, often just a few hrs or days.
-prevents young animal from forming bonds to anything but mother.
-may learn sight, sound or smell depending on speices
What is cultural evolution; acquisition of behavir by "tradition"?
"institutinalized" learning in social groups.
-common in human society
What are the examples of cultural evolution?
-important locations
-migration routes learned from parents
-some bird songs, whale songs appear to be acquired in part by cultral transmission
-tool use in primates