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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
concept
Any class (i.e., group, category) the members of which share one or more defining features.
CS+
In Pavlovian discrimination training, the stimulus that is regularly paired with a US.
CS-
In Pavlovian discrimination training, the stimulus that regularly appears in the absence of the US.
differential outcomes effect
The finding that discrimination training proceeds more rapidly when different behaviors produce different reinforcers. Abbreviated DOE.
discrimination
The tendency for a behavior to occur in the presence of certain stimuli, but not in their absence.
errorless discrimination training
A form of discrimination training in which the S– is introduced in very weak form and gradually strengthened. The usual result is that discrimination is achieved with few or no errors. Also called the Terrace procedure.
excitatory gradient
In Spence’s theory of generalization and discrimination, a generalization gradient showing an increased tendency to respond to the S+ or CS+ and stimuli resembling them.
experimental neurosis
Any bizarre or neurotic-like behavior induced through an experimental procedure such as discrimination training.
generalization
The tendency for a learned behavior to occur in the presence of stimuli that were not present during training.
generalization gradient
Any graphic representation of generalization data.
inhibitory gradient
In Spence’s theory of generalization and discrimination, a gradient showing a decreased tendency to respond to the S– or CS– and stimuli resembling them.
matching to sample
A discrimination training procedure in which the task is to select from two or more comparison stimuli the one that matches a sample. Abbreviated MTS.
mismatching
A variation of matching to sample in which reinforcement is available for selecting the comparison stimulus that is different from the sample. Also called oddity matching.
peak shift
The tendency following discrimination training for the peak of responding in a generalization gradient to shift away from the CS– or S–.
S+
A stimulus in the presence of which a behavior will be reinforced. Also called SD, pronounced ess-dee.
semantic generalization
Generalization based on an abstract (as opposed to a physical) property of a stimulus.
simultaneous discrimination training
A discrimination training procedure in which the S+ and S– are presented at the same time.
stimulus control
The tendency for a behavior to occur in the presence of an S+ but not in the presence of an S–.
successive discrimination training
A discrimination training procedure in which the S+ and S– are presented one after the other in random sequence.
S-
A stimulus in the presence of which a behavior will not be reinforced. Also called S triangle, pronounced ess-delta.
Attentional processes
In Bandura’s theory of vicarious learning, any activity by an observer that aids in the observation of relevant aspects of a model’s behavior and its consequences.
Generalized imitation
The tendency to imitate modeled behavior even though the imitative behavior is not reinforced.
Motivational processes
In Bandura’s theory of vicarious learning, the expectation that a modeled behavior will be reinforced.
Motor reproductive processes
In Bandura’s theory of vicarious learning, the skills required to perform modeled behavior.
Participant modeling
A procedure in which a trainer first models a behavior and then assists the observer to perform it.
Retentional processes
In Bandura’s theory of vicarious learning, any activity by an observer that aids recall of modeled behavior.
Vicarious learning
Any procedure in which an organism learns by observing the behavior of another organism. Also called observational learning.
Cue-dependent forgetting
Forgetting that results from the absence of cues that were present during training.
Delayed matching to sample
A method of measuring forgetting in which the opportunity to match a sample follows a retention interval.
Differential reinforcement of high rate
A form of differential reinforcement in which a behavior is reinforced only if it occurs at least a specified number of times in a given period.
Extinction method
A method of measuring forgetting by comparing the rate of extinction after a retention interval with the rate of extinction immediately after training.
Forgetting
Deterioration in learned behavior following a period without practice.
Free recall
A method of measuring forgetting that consists of providing the opportunity to perform the learned behavior.
Gradient degradation
A method of measuring forgetting in which a behavior is tested for generalization before and after a retention interval. A flattening of the generalization gradient indicates forgetting.
Method of loci
A mnemonic system in which each item to be recalled is “placed” in a distinctive spot in an imagined scene, such as a walking path.
Mnemonic system
Any of several systems for aiding recall, including the method of loci and the peg word system.
Overlearning
The continuation of training beyond the point required to produce one errorless performance.
Paired associate learning
A learning task involving pairs of words or other stimuli in which the subject is presented with the first item of a pair and is expected to produce the second item.
Peg word system
A mnemonic system in which each of the first n integers is associated with a particular image (a “peg”), and each item to be recalled is “placed” on a peg.
Prompted recall
A method of measuring forgetting in which hints (prompts) about the behavior to be performed are provided. Also called cued recall.
Recognition
A method of measuring forgetting in which the subject is required to identify stimuli experienced earlier.
Relearning method
A method of measuring forgetting in which a behavior is learned to criterion before and after a retention interval. Also called the savings method.
Reminiscence
Improvement in performance following a retention interval.
Retention interval
The time between training and testing for forgetting.
Retroactive interference
Forgetting caused by learning that occurred subsequent to the behavior in question.
State-dependent learning
Learning that occurs during a particular physiological state (such as alcoholic intoxication) and is lost when that physiological state passes.
Continuum of preparedness
The idea that organisms are genetically disposed to learn some things and not others.
Critical period
A period in the development of an organism during which it is especially likely to learn a particular kind of behavior.
Fixed action pattern
Any largely inherited series of interrelated acts, usually elicited by a particular stimulus (the releaser). Formerly called instinct.
Imprinting
The tendency of some animals, particularly birds, to follow the first moving object they See after birth, usually (but not necessarily) their mother.
Instinctive drift
The tendency for behavior to “drift toward” a fixed action -pattern.
Mnemonic
Any technique for aiding recall.
Sign tracking
A procedure in which a stimulus is followed by a reinforcer regardless of what the organism does. The procedure often results in the “shaping” of behavior without reinforcement. Also called autoshaping.