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42 Cards in this Set

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Reinforcer
conditioned- stimuli that become reinforcing because of experiences where they are assoicated with other reinforcers, it is learned or secondary
Unconditioned - Inherieted capacity to be reinforced by some stimuli, it is primary or unlearned
Types of conditoned reinforcers
Tokens- conditoned reincforcers that can be accumulated and allow delay of primary reinforcers
Marking- used with animals - mark desired behaviors that are often assoicted with delayed reinforcement
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditoned reinforcement
1. Strenght of back up reinforcer
2. variety of back up reinforcers
3. schedule of paring with back-up rienforcers
4. Extinction of the contioned rienforcers
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Extinction
1. reinforcers for the target behaivor
2. reinforcing an alternative behavior
3. Knowing the rienforcer
4. Insturction
5. behavrioal setting
6. Schedule of reinforcement
Problems Associated with the use of Extinction
1. Extinction burst
2. May produce aggression
3. Extinguished behaviors may reappear
spontaneous recovery
resurgence
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Extinction
1. reinforcers for the target behaivor
2. reinforcing an alternative behavior
3. Knowing the rienforcer
4. Insturction
6. Schedule of reinforcement
What does science mean?
skeptical,parsimonious,(Morgans Cannon), rigorous, replicable
-based on theory
-observe
-form theory
-test theory-
-revise theory
-seach for relationships between findings and theories
Thomas Kuhn view of Science
starts with observation
come to a consensus
buy into a paradigm
framework for reasearch
elaborate and verify the paradigm
normal science
new paradigm develops when old paradigms are consistently found to be lacking
Karl Popler
startw with recognition of problem
problems determin observation
propose a solution to a problem
attemp to refute proposed theories
Instrumental
Response is the instrument that produces the outcome
Response is the intrumental behavior
change the rate of behavior based on contingencies
there will be an increase or decrease in behavior
the outcome of the behavior is the "reinforcer"
Ferberize
Dr. Ferber
stop reinforcing childrens bad sleeping habits
Thorndike's Law of effect
If a response is followed by a satisfying event the associtaion between stimulus and response is strenghtened
If a response is followed by an annoying even the association between stimulus and response is weakened
Edwared L. Thorndike
Interested in animal intelligence
Put cats in puzzle boxes
recorded time it took cat to escape
Cats got faster over trials
Thought of this as S-R learning
Methods for discrete trials
each trial starts when animal enters apparatus
each trial ends when experimenter removes animal from apparatus
Measure speed or latency to begin behavior
Maze research
Mazes
Runway maze
t-maze
Morris water maze
Radial arm maze
Free Operant Methods / Skinner
can repat resonse at will (such as pressing a button)
developed by skinner
a response is defined in terms of its effect
whatever does the job
Extinction
you stop reinforcing a behavior that you previously reinforced
Skinner/Operant
4
1.the subject's response has consequences
2.It produces an outcome
3.Learns that a response has an associated consequence
4.increases responses that result in desirable consequences.
form of learning in which a specific action (an operant response) is made to occur either more frequently or
less frquently by manipulating its consequences in the enviornment
- response operates upon the enviornment
- manipulate the enviornment to get a reward
Schedules of rienforcement
Continuous-every response is assoiciated with a reinforcement
Intermittent(IRF)/Partial(PRF)-Not every response is associated with a reinforcement
why is partial reinforcement better than continous reinforcement?
1. Less reward satiation
2. longer to extinguish
3. More consistient behavior
4. Easier to switch to natural reinforcement
5. Easier to administer
6. cheaper
Types of Schedules
Ratio
Interval
Limited Hold
Duration
Ratio Schedule
this is used when a lot of responses are required and can be observed
Vairety of Ratio schedule
Fixed- number of responses required is constnat(FR10)
Variable-number of responses required varies around a mean number (VR10)
Interval schedules
reinforcement is dependent upon making a response after some amount of time has passed
Fixed Interval schedule
response is reinforced only if it occurs a set time after last reinforcement (FI10)
Variable Interval Schedule
elapsed time singce lat reinforcemt varies around a mean number (VI10)
ratio versus Interval
FR and FI have post rienforcement pause
FR amd FI have high rate of response before reward
VR and VI have high rate of resonse with no post reinforcemnt pause
Differences between ratio versus interval
Activate different neurochemical processes
when result is same frequency and distrivurion of rewards, VR respons at great rate than VI
Limited hold scheduels
Reinforcement is available for a limited time
Fixed Limited Hold Schedules
limited hold added to fixed interval schedule - this is common in real world behavioral modification
Variable limited hold schedule
limited hold added to varible interval schedule
Duration schedules
reinforcemnt is dependent upon making response continuously for some amount of time
Fixed duration schedules
respond continuously for a specified amount of time
What is learning
it is usefull
due to experience
lasts
helps us cope with enviornmental changes
it can manifest in an increase or decrease in behavior
Why do we study behavior
to infer learning
behavior is evidence of learning
learning theory attemps to account for how behavior has been shaped by the environment
What are some problems with the definition of learning from the dictionary
learning does not always involve a gain in behavior: such as psychological disorders, or abusive behavior
Learning is not allways intentional,Incidental learning occurs without intent or instruction to remember the behavior for later
What are the two requirments that must be met to say that learning has taken place
1. the behavior must be realively permanent to rule out behavioral change due to fatigue or motivational changes
2. Produced by experience to rule out maturation
Behavioral potential
the potiental for behavioral change when the conditons are right exp when there is an incentive to preform the behavior
What is latent learning
learning that is hidden in internally rather than shown in behavior
What is behavior modification
1. define problems as measurable behaviors
2. Use change in behavior to measure resolution of the problems
3. Alter enviornments to change the behavior
4. Very presice methods
5. and can be applied by individuals in every day life
What is conditoning
Procedures used to modify behavior
causes learning
two main types
classical/Pavlovian
operant
the subjects response has no consequence
it produces no change in the enviornment
learns assoication between two stimuli
Association results in a new response (CR) to a previously netral stimuli (CS)
Classical Conditioning
paire ucs with cs to learn cr
cr's occurence depends on the expectation that the ucs is/will be present
reinforcement isn't contingent on the response