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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Phobias develop because of which type of learning?
classical conditioning
which type of conditioning is most effective?
when CS overlaps w/UCS (delayed conditioning)
classical conditioning focuses on ____ behaviors while operant conditioning focuses on ____ behaviors
- involuntary
- voluntary
behavior increasing when attempting to extinguish it is known as
extinction burst
extinguised behavior restarting when R+ presented is known as
spontaneous recovery
chaining is done with ___ behaviors while shaping is done with ____ behaviors
- complex
- simple
short term memory is also known as ___ while long term memory is known as ___
- primary memory
- secondary memory
The two types of LTM are:
The are also called:
Which one is within your awareness/consciousness?
- explicit (conscious)- declarative
- implicit (unconscious)- procedural
The 2 types of declarative memories are:
- semantic (facts & logic) and episodic (personal experiences)
metacognition develops within which Piaget stage
formal operational
what are the 2 types of forgetting?
retroactive inhibition- new info. cause you to forget old info.
proactive inhibition- old info. cause you to forget new info.
Thorndike's 3 laws are:
Define them...
-law of effect- responses followed by satisfaction will be repeated
-law of exercise- repeated responses will become bonded to a stimulus
-law of readiness- organism must be ready to perform
3 Techniques that are based on counterconditioning:
what is another name used?
-systematic desensitization
-assertiveness training
-sensate focus

-reciprocal inhibition
2 techniques based on extinction:
-flooding
-implosive therapy
how are flooding and implosive therapy similar? how are they different?
-similar because exposure to stimuli while preventing avoidance
-different because implosive is imaginal and psychodynamically focused
2 techniques based on aversive conditioning:
which is least effective and why?
-invivo aversive conditioning
-covert sensitization
-covert least effective because it's imaginal
give an example of aversive conditioning...
giving antabuse to alcoholics
depressed people attribute their situation to what 3 things
internal, stable, & global factors
what is thinning?
switching from continous R+ to intermittent R+
Which R+ interval leads to lowest rate of responding & lowest resistance to extinction? Which R+ interval leads to highest rate of responding & highest resistance to extinction? Give example of each...
-fixed interval (e.g., paycheck)
-variable ratio (e.g., gambling)
Negative R+ leads to what 2 things...
-escape & avoidance
According to Mowrer's 2 factor theory how is classical conditioning related to avoidance?
things associated w/aversiveness are avoided
According to Mowrer's 2 factor theory how is operant conditioning related to avoidance?
avoidance is a (-)R+ because anxiety decreases when certain things avoided
a discriminative stimulus is...
cue that behavior will be R+
a s-delta stimulus is...
cue that behavior will NOT be R+
2 techniques based on R+ are?
-shaping
-premack principle
4 techniques based on punishment are?
-time out
-overcorrection
-reponse cost
-differntial R+
what is the zeigarnik effect?
better memory for incomplete tasks
What did Harlow state is important for learning?
need to explore/curiousity
What is the Yerkes-Dobson Law?
When is arousal optimal?
-relationship between arousal and performance is U shaped
-high for simple tasks, low for complex tasks
which memory tells you how to do things - procedural or declarative? which memory is difficult to forget?
-procedural
-procedural
what is a flashbulb memory?
detailed memory of emotionally charged events
which amnesia is most rare and is a sign of psychological not physiological impairment?
retrograde (can't remember things before the traumatic event)
what is photographic memory?
what is another name for it? is it more common in children or adults?
mental picture
eidetic
children
what is overlearning?
what is it most helpful for?
-rehearsing something beyond mastery
-simple tasks
what helps people not to forget newly learned info.?
sleep
Large amounts of information can be kept in short-term memory through the use of...
chunking
tension-reduction hypothesis proposed that alcohol consumption is due to?
conditioning
What does the NIMH call the aging effect?
Age-Associated Memory Impairment