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157 Cards in this Set

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Learning
An enduring change in the mechanisms of behavior involving specific stimuli and/or responses that results from prior experience with similar stimuli and responses OR one of the biological processes that facilitate adaptation to one's environment
Association
A connection between the representations of two events (two stimuli or a stimulus and a response) such that the occurrence of one of the events activates the representation of the other.
Dualism
The view of behavior according to which actions can be separated into two categories: voluntary behavior controlled by the mind and involuntary behavior controlled by reflex mechanisms.
Empiricism
A philosophy according to which all ideas in the mind arise from experience.
Fatigue
A temporary decrease in behavior caused by repeated or excessive use of the muscles involved in the behavior.
Hedonism
The philosophy proposed by Hobbes according to which the actions of organisms are determined entirely by the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain.
Maturation
A change in behavior caused by physical or psychological development or the organism in the absence of experience with particular environmental events.
Nativism
A philosophy according to which human beings are born with innate ideas.
Nervism
The philosophical position adopted by Pavlov that all behavioral and physiological processes are regulated by the nervous system.
Nonsense Syllable
A three-letter combination (two consonants and separated by a vowel) that has no meaning.
Performance
An organism's activities at a particular time.
Reflex
A mechanism that enables a specific environmental event to elicit a specific response.
a Process/Primary Process
The first process elicited by a biologically significant stimulus.
Afferent Neuron/Sensory Neuron
A neuron that transmits messages from sense organs to the central nervous system.
Appetitive Behavior
Behavior that occurs early in a natural behavior sequence and serves to bring the organism into contact with a releasing stimulus.
b Process/Opponent Process
A compensatory mechanism that occurs in response to the a/primary process elicited by biologically significant events. The opponent process causes physiological and behavioral changes that are the opposite of those caused by the primary process.
Consummatory Behavior
Behavior that serves to bring a natural sequence of behavior to consummation or completion. Consummatory responses are usually species-typical modal action patterns.
Dishabituation
Recovery of an habituated response as a result of a strong extraneous stimuli.
Drug Tolerance
Reduction in the effectiveness of a drug as a result of repeated use of the drug.
Efferent Neuron/Motor Neuron
A neuron that transmits impulses to muscles.
Focal Search Mode
The second component of the feeding behavior sequence, following general search, in which the organism engages in behavior focused on a particular location or stimulus that is indicative of the presence of food. Focal search is a form of appetitive behavior that is more closely related to food than is general search.
Food Handling Mode
The last component of the feeding behavior sequence, in which the organism handles and consumes the food. This is similar to what ethologists referred to as consummatory behavior.
General Search Mode
The earliest component of the feeding behavior sequence, in which the organism engages in nondirecged locomotor behavior. General search is a form of appetitive behavior.
Habituation Effect
A progressive decrease in the vigor of elicited behavior that may occur with repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus.
Habituation Process
A neural mechanism activated by repetitions of a stimulus that reduces the magnitude of responses elicited by that stimulus.
Interneuron
A neuron in the spinal cord betwenn the afferent/sensory neuron and the efferent/motor neuron in the reflex arc.
Modal Action Pattern (MAP)
A response pattern exhibited in much the same way by most, if not all, members of a species. MAPs are used as basic units of behavior in ethological investigations of behavior.
Reflex Arc
Neural structures, consisting of the efferent/sensory neuron, interneuron, and afferent/sensory neuron, that enable a stimulus to elicit a reflex response.
Reinforcer
A stimulus whose delivery shortly following a response increases the future probability of that response.
Sensitization Effect
An increase in the vigor of elicited behavior that may result from repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus or from exposure to a strong extraneous stimulus.
Sensitization Process
A neural mechanism that increases the magnitude of responses elicited by a stimulus.
Sensory Adaptation
A temporary reduction in the sensitivity of sense organs caused by repeated or excessive stimulation.
Sign/Releasing Stimulus
A specific feature of an object or animal that elicits a MAP in another organism.
Spontaneous Recovery
Recovery of a response produced by a period of rest after habituation or extinction.
S-R System
The shortest neural pathway that connects the sense organs stimulated by an eliciting stimulus and the muscles involved in making the elicited response.
State System
Neural structures that determine the general level of responsiveness, or readiness to respond, of the organism.
Supernormal Stimulus
An artificially enlarged or exaggerated sign stimulus that elicits an unusually vigorous response.
Backward Conditioning
A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus is presented after the unconditioned stimulus on each trial.
Compound-Stimulus Test/Summation Test
A test procedure that identifies a stimulus as a conditioned inhibitor if that stimulus reduces the responding elicited by a conditioned excitatory stimulus.
Conditional/Conditioned Response (CR)
The response that comes to be made to the conditioned stimulus as a result of classical conditioning.
Conditional/Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
A stimulus that does not elicit a particular response initially, but come to do so as a result of becoming associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Emotional Response/Conditioned Suppression (CER)
Suppression of positively reinforced instrumental behavior caused by the presentation of a stimulus that has become associated with an aversive stimulus.
Conditioned Lick Suppression
Similar to the CER procedure. However, instead of lever pressing for food serving as the behavior that is suppressed by conditioned fearm the baseline is licking a waterspout by thirsty rats. The presentation of a fear-conditioned CS slows down the rate of licking.
Conditioning Trial
A training eppisode involving presentation of a CS with or without a US.
CS-US Interval/Interstimulus Interval
The amount of time that elapses between presentations of the CS and the US during a classical conditioning trial.
Explicitly Unpaired Control
A procedure in which both CS and US are presented, but with sufficient time between them so that they do not become associated with each other.
Intertrial Interval
The amount of time that elapses between two successive trials.
Latency
The time elapsed between a stimulus (or the start of the trial) and the response that is made to the stimulus.
Magnitude of Response
A measue of the size, vigor, or extent of a response.
Object Learning
Learning associations between different stimulus elements of an object.
Probablity of a Response
The likelihood of making the response, usually represented in terms of the percentage of trials on which the response occurs.
Pseudoconditioning
Increased responding that may occur to a stimulus whose presentations are intermixed with presentations of a US in the absence of the establishment of an association between the stimulus and the US.
Random Control
A procedure in which the CS and US are presented at random times with respect to each other.
Retardation-of-Acquisition Test
A test procedure that identifies a stimulus as a conditioned inhibitor if that stimulus is slow to acquire excitatory properties than a comparison stimulus.
Short-Delayed Conditioning
A classical conditioning procedure in which the CS is initiated shortly before the US on each conditioning trial.
Sign Tracking/Autoshaping
Movement toward and possibly contact with the stimulus that signals the availability of a positive reinforcer such as food.
Simultaneous Conditioning
A classical conditioning procedure in which the CS and the US are presented simultaneously on each conditioning trial.
Temporal Coding Hypothesis
The idea that Pavlovian conditioning procedures lead not only to learning that the US happens but exactly when the US occurs in relation to the CS. The CS comes to represent or code the timing of the US.
Test Trial
A trial in which the CS is presented without the US. This allows measurement of the CR in the absence of the UR.
Trace Conditioning
A classical conditioning procedure in which the US is presented after the CS has been terminated for a short period.
Trace Interval
The interval between the end of the CS and the start of the US in trace conditioning trials.
Unconditional/Unconditioned Response (UR)
A response that occurs ro a stimulus without the necessity of prior training.
Unconditional/Unconditioned Stimulus(UR)
A stimulus that elicits a particular response without the necessity of prior training.
Augmentation/Contra-Blocking Effect
Facilitation of the conditioning of a novel stimulus because of the presence of a previously conditioned stimulus.
Blocking Effect
Interference with the conditioning of a novel stimulus because of the presence of a previously conditioned stimulus.
Comparator Hypothesis
The idea that conditioned responding depends on a comparison between the associative strength of the CS and that of other cues present during the training of the target CS.
Conditioned Homeostatic-Response
A conditioned response that is similar to the unconditioned homeostatic reactions that are elicited by some unconditioned stimuli.
Counterconditioning
A conditioning procedure that reverses the organism's previous response to a S. For example, an animal may be conditioned to approach a S that initially elicited withdrawl reactions.
CS-Preexposure Effect/Latent-Inhibition Effect
Interference with conditioning produced by repeated exposures to the CS before the conditioning trials.
Drug Tolerance
Reduction in the effectiveness of a drug as a result of repeated use of the drug.
Higher-Order Conditioning
A procedure in which a previously conditioned stimulus is used to condition a new stimulus.
Relative Waiting Time Hypothesis
The idea that conditioned responding depends on how long the organism has to wait for the US in the presence of the CS, as compared to how long the organism has to wait for the US in the experimental situation irrespective of the CS.
S-R Learning
The learning of an association between a S and a R, with the result that the S comes to elicit the R
S-S Learning
The learning of an association between two Ss, with the result that exposure to one of the Ss comes to activate a representation of the other S.
Sensory Preconditioning
A procedure in which one biologically weak S (CS1) is repeatedly paired with another biologically weak S (CS2). Then CS1 is conditioned with a US. In a later later test trial CS2 also will elicit the CR even thoguh CS2 was never directly paired with the US.
Stimulus Salience
The significance or noticability of a S to an organism. In general, conditioning proceeds more rapidly with more salient CS and US.
Stimulus Substitution
The theoretical idea that the outcome of classical conditioning is that organisms come to respond to the CS in much the same way that they respond to the US.
US-Preexposure Effect
Interference with conditioning produced by repeated exposures to the US before conditioning trials.
US Devaluation
Reduction in the attractiveness of a US, usually achieved by aversion conditioning or satiation.
Accidental Reinforcment/Adventitious Reinforcement
An instance in which the delivery of a reinforcer happens to coincide with a particular response, even though that response was not responsible for the reinforcer presentation.
Appetitive Stimulus
A pleasant or satisfying stimulus that can be used to positively reinforce an instrumental response.
Aversive Stimulus
An unpleasant or annoying stimulus that can be used to punish an instrumental response.
Avoidance
An instrumental conditioning procedure in which the instrumental response prevents the delivery of an aversive stimulus.
Belongingness
The theoretical idea, proposed by Thorndike, that an organism's evolutionary history makes certain responses fit or belong with certain reinforcers. Belongingness facilitated learning.
Conditioned Reinforcer/Secondary Reinforcer
A stimulus that becomes and effective reinforcer because of its association with a primary or unconditioned reinforcer.
Contiguity/Temporal Contiguity
The (almost) simultaneous occurence of two events, such as a response and a reinforcer.
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
An instrumental conditioning procedure in which a positive reinforcer is periodically delivered only if the participant fails to perform a particular response.
Discrete-Trial Method
A method of instrumental conditioning in which the participant can perform the instrumental response only during specified periods usually determined either by placement of the participant in an experimental chamber or by the presentation of a stimulus.
Escape
An instrumental conditioning procedure in which the instrumental response terminates an aversive stimulus.
Free-Operant Method
A method of instrumental conditioning that permits repeated performance of the instrumental response without the participant being removed from the experimental chamber.
Instinctive Drift
A gradual drift of instrumental behavior away from the responses required for reinforcement to species-typical or "instinctive" responses related to the reinforcer and to other stimuli in the experimental situtation.
Instrumental Behavior
An activity that occurs because it is effective in producing a particular consequence or reinforcer.
Interim Response
A response that increases in frequency after the delivery of a periodic reinforcer and the declines as time for the next reinforcer approached.
Latency
The time between the start of a trial or stimulus and the instrumental response.
Law of Effect
A rule for instrumental behavior, proposed by Thorndike, which states that if a response in the presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association between the stimulus and the response will be strengthened; if it response is followed by an annoying event, the association will be weakened.
Learned-Helplessness Effect
Interference with the learning of new instrumental responses as a result of exposure to inescapable and unavoidable aversive stimulation.
Learned-Helplessness Hypothesis
A theoretical idea that assumes that during exposure to inescapable and unavoidable aversive stimulation, participants learn that their behavior does not control environmental events.
Magazine Training
A preliminary stage of instrumental conditioning in which a stimulus is repeatedly paired with the reinforcer to enable the participant to learn to go and get the reinforcer when it is presented. The sound of the food-delivery devicem for example, may be repeatedly paired with food so that the animal will learn to go to the food cup when the food is delivered.
Marking Procedure
A porcedure in which the instrumental response is immediately followed by a distinctive event (the participant is picked up or a flash of light is presented) that makes the instrumental response more memorable and helps overcome the deleterious effects of delayed reinforcement.
Negative Contrast
Less responding for an unfavorable reinforcer following previous experience with a more desired reinforcer than in the absence of such prior experience.
Negative Reinforcement
An instrumental conditioning procedure in which there is a negative contingency between the instrumental response and an aversive stimulus. If the instrumental response is performed, the aversive stimulus is terminated or prevented form occuring; if the instrumental response is not performed, the aversive stimulus is presented.
Omission Training
An instrumental conditioning procedure in which the instrumental response prevents the delivery of a reinforcing stimulus.
Operant Response
A response that is defined by the effect is produces in the environment. Examples include pressing a lever and opening a door. Any sequence of movements that depresses the lever or opens the door constitutes an instance of that particular operant.
Positive Contrast
Greater responding for a favorable reinforcer following previous experience with a less desired reinforcer that in the absence of such prior experience.
Positive Reinforcement
An instrumental conditioning procedure in which there is a positive contingency between the instrumental response and a reinforcing stimulus. If the participant performs the response, it receieves the reinforcing stimulus; if the participant does not perform the response, it does not receive the reinforcing stimulus.
Punishment
An instrumental conditioning procedure in which there is a positive contingency between the instrumental response and an aversive stimulus. If the participant performs the response, it receieves the aversive stimulus; if the participant does not perform the response, it does not receive the aversive stimulus.
Response-Reinforcer Contingency
Tha causal relation between a response and a reinforcer, measured in terms of the probability of getting reinforced for making the response as compared to the probability of getting reinforced in the absence of the response.
Running Speed
How fast (in feet per second, for example), an animal moves in a runway.
Shaping
Reinforcement of successive approximations to a desired instrumental response.
Simultaneous Behavioral Contrast
Behavioral contrast effects (positive and negative contrast) that are produced by frequent shifts between a favorable and an unfavorable reward condition, with each reward condition associated with its own distinctive stimulus.
Superstitious Behavior
Behavior that increases in frequency because of accidental pairings of the delivery of a reinforcer with occurrences of the behavior.
Terminal Response
A response that is most likely at the end of the interval between successive reinforcements that are presented at fixed intervals.
Homeostasis
A concept introduced by Water Cannon to refer to physiological mechanisms that serve to maintain critical aspects fo the body within acceptable limits. The homeostatic level is typically acheived by the operation of negative feedback mechanisms that serve to counteract the effects of challenges to the homeostatic level.
Concurrent-Chain Schedule
A complex reinforcement procedure in which the participant is permitted to choose which of the several simple reinforcement schedules will be in effect. Once a choice has been made, the rejected alternatives become unavailable for some time.
Concurrent Schedule
A complex reinforcement procedure in which the participant can choose any one of two or more simple reinforcement schedules that are available simultaneously. Concurrent schedules allow for the measurement of choice between simple schedule alternatives.
Continuous Reinforcement (CRF)
A schedule of reinforcement in which every occurrence of the instrumental response produces the reinforcer.
Cumulative Record
A graphical representation of how a response is repeated over time, with the passage of time represented by the horizontal distance (x axis), and the total or cumulative number of responses that have occurred up to a particular point in time represented by the vertical distance (y axis).
Differential Reinforcement of High Rate (DRH)
A reinforcement schedule in which a response is reinforced only if it occurs before a specified amount of time has elapsed following the preceding response.
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate (DRL)
A reinforcement schedule in which a response is reinforced only if it occurs after a specified amount of time has elapsed following the preceding response.
Fixed Interval Scallop
The gradually increasing rate of responding that occurs between sucessive reinforcements on a fixed interval schedule.
Fixed Interval Schedule (FI)
A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is delivered for the first response that occurs after a fixed amount of time following the last reinforcer.
Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR)
A reinforcement schedule in which a fixed number of responses must occur in order for the next response to be reinforced.
Intermittent Reinforcement/Partial Reinforcement
A schedule of reinforcement in which only some of the occurrences of the instrumental response are reinforced. The instrumental response is reinforced occasionally, or intermittently.
Interresponse Time (IRT)
The interval between one response and the next. IRTs can be differentially reinforced in the same fashion as other aspects of behavior, such as the response force or variability.
Interval Schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a response is reinforced only if it occurs after a set amount of time following the last reinforcement.
Limited Hold
A restriction on how long reinforcement remains available. In order for a response to be reinforced, it mut occur during the limited hold period.
Matching Law
A rule for instrumental behavior, proposed by Herrnstein, which states that the relative rate of responding on a particular response alternative equals the relative rate of reinforcement for that response alternative.
Melioration
A mechanism for acheiving matching by responding so as to improve the local rates of reinforcement for response alternatives.
Overmatching
Greater sensitivity to the relative rate of reinforcement than predicted by perfect matching.
Postreinforcement Pause
A pause in responding that typically occurs after the delivery of the reinforcer on FR and FI schedules of reinforcement.
Ratio Run
The high and invariant rate of responding observed after the postreinforcement pause on FI reinforcement schedules. The ratio run ends when the necessary number of responses have been performed, and the participant is reinforced.
Ratio Strain
Disruption of responding that occurs when a FR response requirement is increased too rapidly.
Response-Rate Schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a response is reinforced depending on how soon that response is made after the previous occurrence of the behavior.
Schedule of Reinforcement
A program, or rule, that determines how and when the occurrence of a response will be followed by the delivery of the reinforcer.
Undermatching
Less sensitivity to the relative rate of reinforcement than predicte by perfect mathcing.
Value Discounting Function
The mathematical function that describes how reinforcer value decreases as a function of how long a participant has to wait for delivery of the reinforcer.
Variable Interval Schedule (VI)
A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is provided for the first response that occurs after a variable amount of time from the last reinforcement.
Variable Ratio Schedule (VR)
A reinforcement schedule in which the number of responses necessary to produce reinforcement varies from trial to trial. The value of the schedule refers to the average number of responses needed for reinforcement .
ho alazon
the pretentious teacher (Jewish)
episteuthesan
entrusted
apistia
unfaithful
pistos
faith
thanatos
death
nomos
law, principle, norm
dikaiomata
just requirements of the law
Eschatological now
temporal marker that indicates the inauguration of a new era (...but now that faith has come)
Eschatological vindication
reference to end time, justice for the Gentiles
kata sarka
according to the faith
hilasterion
pardon of sin; making of amends expiation; wiping away; "mercy seat"
proetheto
to put forward (Jesus was put forward)
halakah
walk
hamartia
sin
propitiation
to appease an angry God
charis
grace
hypandros
under or subject to a man
Redemption
seeks to answer the question: "How will the lost be rescued from their captors (sin and death)?" (Christ the redeemer)
Atonement
seeks to answer the question: "How will the sins which have separated them from God be forgiven?" (Christ as the ultimate sacrifice)