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119 Cards in this Set

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What are the three learning theories developed to explain the acquisition of new behavior and responses?
1. Classical conditioning
2. Operant conditioning
3. social learning theory
Classical conditioning posits that learning is based on
1. pairing
or 2 rewards and punishments?
pairing
Operant conditioning posits that learning is based on
1. pairing
2. rewards and punishments
3. observation and imitation?
rewards and punishments
social learning theory posits that learning is based on
1. pairing?
2. rewards and punishments?
3. observation and imitation?
observation and imitation
Classical conditioning focuses on responses that are
1. voluntary and deliberate
2. automatic, involuntary, non-deliberate and require no effort
2. classical conditionig focuses on automatic, involuntary responses that are not deliberate and require no effort
What are three other names for classical condiioning?
1. respondent (i.e. involuntary);
2. Pavlovian;
3. stimulus-response conditioning
Name the two pioneers of classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov and John Watson
Pavlov focused on the links between stimulus and responses. These links are called...
Reflexes
What is an unconditioned reflex?
An unconditioned reflex occurs when no learning has taken place and the link between stimulus and response is inborn and automatic.
What is the graphic depiction of an unconditioned reflex?
US -> UR (An unconditioned stimulus evokes an unconditioned response).
In Pavlov's experiment with dogs, he found that meat powder led to salivation. This is an example of what type of reflex? How is it depicted graphically?
Unconditioned reflex. Meat powder (US) -> salivation (UR).
Turning the lights off leads to pupil dilation. What is this an example of? How is it depicted graphically?
Unconditioned reflex. Light off (US) -> pupil dilation (UR).
A loud noise elicits a startle response. What is this an example of and how is it graphically depicted?
Unconditioned reflex. Loud noise (US) -> startle (UR)
Which reflex varies significantly among members of a species and results from learning and explerience?
1. unconditioned reflex
2. conditioned reflex
2. conditioned reflex
How is a conditioned response graphically depicted?
CS -> CR
Conditioned stimuli -> conditioned response
What is a neutral stimulus?
A neutral stimulus (NS) is a stimulus that evokes no automatic responses (i.e. a tone).
How is a conditioned reflex learned?
A (NS) is paired repeatedly with an uconditioned response (UR). Through these pairings the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response similar to the unconditioned response (UR).
Using meat powder, salivation and a tone, provide an example of a conditioned reflex.
A tone (NS) is paired repeatedly with meat powder (US) until the tone elicits the salivation. Once the NS elicits salivation by itself, it is renamed the conditioned stimulus and the salivtion is renamed a conditioned response.
Conditioning trials: Meat powder (US)is paired with tone (NS) -> salivation (UR).
Conditioned reflex:
tone (CS) -> salivation (CR)
True or false, a conditioned response is frequently of the same magnitude than the unconditioned response.
False, the conditioned response is typically of less magnitude than the unconditioned response.
Feeling perked up at the first sip of coffee is an example of what?
A conditioned response. coffee (CS) -> feeling perked up (CR)
Feeling happy at the first sound of an ice cream truck is an example of what kind of reflex?
A conditioned reflex. Ice cream truck (CS) -> feeling happy (CR)
What does standard pairing (trace conditioning) refer to?
The condition stimulus (originally the NS) preceds the US by a short interval (as little as .5 seconds) and overaps into the presentation of the US. Hear the US appears to be dependent/contingent on the presentation of the CS. EX: tone (CS) is sounded 5 seconds bfore the meat powder (US) and continues to be sounded as powder is presented.
What does delay conditioning refer to?
Here the CS precedes the US by a significant period and stops before the US. EX: the dog hears the can opener (NS) and is feed the food (US). Overtime, he will salivate (CR) when hears the can opener sound (CS).
What does temporal conditioning refer to?
Temporal conditioning occurs whn the US is presented repeatedly at a consistent time interval. Eventually time becomes the CS. Feeding time at zoo is an example.
What does simultaneous conditioning refer to?
Here the NS and the US completely overlap. EX: the tone is presented at same time as the meat powder.
Does simultaneous conditioning work?
No. The NS never becomes a CS and never elicits a CR. the US never appears to depend on the NS. There is no contingency
What does backward conditioning refer to? Why does this not work?
Here the US precedes the NS. EX: Meat powder is presented and then the tone. No learning or conditioning occurs as there is no contingency.
Describe stimulus generalization (or mediated generalization) and provide an example.
In stimulus generalization, the Ss automatically generlizes from a CS to other similar NS. The Ss demonstrates the same CR to these similar NS. EX: little Albert was conditioned to be afraid of white rat (NS) when paired with loud noise (US). Without training, Albert generalized from white rat (CS) to other furry white objects (sim NS) and showed fear response (CR).
True or false: Stimulus generalization occurs automatically and without any deliberate attempt on part of experimenter.
True.
What is higher order conditioning?
Higher order conditioning is a deliberate process where a CS is paired with a neutral stimulus until it becomes the new CS and also elicits a CR.
What is an example of higher order conditioning?
A tone (CS1) is repeatedly paired with a flash of light (NS) until the animal begins to salivate. The flash of light is now the CS2 and second order conditioning has occured. Third order conditioning occurs when a third NS, red color, is paired with the flash of light (CS2) until the color red becomes the CS3.
What is highest level that higher order conditioning can occur?
Three
What is the difference between stimulus generalization and higher order conditioning?
Stimulus generalization is automatic, whereas higher order conditioning is a deliberate process.
How does classical extinction work?
Classical extinction occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented without the US (i.e. if the tone is repeatedly presented without meat powder, dog will stop salivating).
Will classical extinction occur if the US (loud noise) is repeatedly presented without the CS (rat).
No extinction will occur. As the rat has not lost the signaling power, it will still result in fear response.
What is spontaneous recovery?
During extinction trials, following a rest period, the CR to the CS often briefly reappears. For ex, dog is given tone but no meat powder. The tone eventually does not elicit salivation. However, the next day it does.
What is stimulus discrimination?
An animal learns to discriminate b/w two similar neutral stimula because one was paired with the US and the other was not.
If the two stimulus discriminations are too difficult, what can occur? What happens if the two stimulis are made less difficult?
Experimental neurosis occurs and the animal might become aggitated. If returned to a level previously mastered, the animal will no longer be able to differentiate as if there has been a breakdown.
What is pseudoconditioning?
Pseudoconditioning occurs accidentally when a unexpected NS is inadvertantly paired with the US or the CS and elicits the CR (ie the dog learns to salivate when the light is turned on in the room).
What is habituation?
Here the Ss become accustomed to and less responsive to an US after repeated exposure, which in turn will not elicit the CR. (i.e. noise of train US becomes habituated and no longer startles person UR.
True or False: All US can be affected by habituation.
False. Some US can not be changed such as in electrical shock.
True or False: Habituation always involves the US, not the CS.
True.
What are two other names for operant conditioning?
1. Skinnerian conditioning
2. Instrumental conditioning (behavior is instrumental or goal-directed) toward obtaining its reward.
True or false, operant conditioning focused on involunary behaviors or responses.
False, operant conditioning focused on voluntary behaviors.
Who are the two major theorists in operant conditioning?
1. E. L. Thorndike
2. B. F. Skinner
What is Thorndike's Law of Effect? How was it later revised?
Behaviors are initially emitted in random fashion. Those random behaviors that are followed by pleasureable consequences become stronger while those followed by negative consequences become weaker.

Later Thorndike deleted the part about punisher.
Reinforcement always ________ the targe behavior.
Increases
Punishment always _________ the target behavior. It brings the person into a ____ desirable state.
Decreases
Less
With operant conditioning, the term positive means that something is ________ following an emission of the target behavior.
added
In operant conditioning, the term negative means that somethting is _________ following an emission of the target behavior.
subtracted
In positive reinforcement, what is the contingency/consequence?
1. reward
2. relief
3. pain
4. loss
1. reward
In positive reinforcement, what occurs?
1. something is added
2. something is taken away
1. something is added
In positive reinforcement, what is the subject's state?
1. desirable
2. undesirable
1. desirable
In positive reinforcement, what is the outcome?
1. Increase target beh
2. Decrease target beh
1. Increase target behavior
In negative reinforecment, what is the contingency/consequence?
1. reward
2. relief
3. pain
4. loss
2. relief
In negative reinforecment, what occurs?
1. something is added
2. something is taken away
2. something is taken away
In negative reinforecment, what is the subject's state?
1. desirable
2. undesirable
1. desirable
In negative reinforcement, what is the outcome?
1. increase target behavior
2. decrease target behavior
1. increase target behavior
In positive punishment, what is the contingency/consequence?
1. reward
2. relief
3. pain
4. loss
3. pain
In positive punishment, what occurs?
1. something is added
2. soemthing is taken away
1. something is added
In positive punishment, what is the subject's state?
1. desirable
2. undesirable
2. undesirable
In positive punishment, what is the outcome?
1. increase target behavior
2. decrease target behavior
2. decrease target behavior
In negative punishment, what is the contingency/consequence?
1. reward
2. relief
3. pain
4. loss
4. loss
In negative punishment, what occurs?
1. something is added
2. something is taken away
2. something is taken away
In negative punishment, what is the subject's state?
1. desirable
2. undesirable
2. undesirable
In negative punishment, what is the outcome?
1. increase target behavior
2. decrease target behavior
2. decrease target behavior
What is this an example of:

A child is praised after she makes her bed.
Positive reinforcement
What is this an example of: A person starts her car and hears an annoying sound. Once she fastens her seatbelt, the sound goes off.
Negative reinforcement (after the target behavior occurs, the annoyance is removed - relief and target behavior increases).
What is this an example of:

A parent nags a child to take out the garbage. The nagging stops when the garbage is taken out.
Negative reinforcement (after the target behavior occurs, the annoyance is removed - relief and target behavior increases).
What is this an example of?

A child is scolded after she spits.
Positive punishment. (scolding is added after the undesirable beh in order to decrease the occurance of that behavior, and the child is left in an undesirable state).
What is this an example of?

A child is spanked after she hit her brother.
Positive punishment. (spanking is added after the hitting in order to decrease the beh and the child is left in an undesirable state).
What is this an example of?

A child who swears loses tv time.
Negative punishment. (something is lossed in order to decrease swearing and the child is left in an undesirable state).
Time outs, response cost, late penalties and loss of privileges are examples of what?
1. positive reinforcement
2. negative reinforcement
3. positive punishment
4. negative punishment
Negative punishment.
A child stomps around. The mother scolds the child. The child quiets down. What type of contingency is controlling the mother's behavior?
1. positive reinforcement
2. negative reinforcement
3. positive punishment
4. negative punishment
1. negative reinforcement
A child stomps around. The mother scolds the child. The child quiets down. What type of contingency is controlling the child's behavior?
1. positive reinforcement
2. negative reinforcement
3. positive punishment
4. negative punishment
3. positive punishment

target beh (child stomping)
scolding is something added
target beh will likely decrease
child's state less desirable
In operant condition, the acquisition phase refers to what?
The period during which new learning occurs.
In operant condition, the period in which reinforcement is withheld is called _____.
extinction
In operant conditioning, operant strength refers to what?
The measured rate of responding (i.e. how many pecks the pigeon makes).
In operant conditioning, what is continuous reinforcement?
Continuous reinforcement occurs when you reinforce every occurence of the behavior. (you give a candy every time a child reads a word).
What does satiation mean? In what type of reinforcement schedule does it occur?
Satiation refers to the phenomenon of a reinforcer losing its value through overuse. Continuous reinforcement schedule.
What does thinning mean?
When the schedule of reinforcement changes from continuous to intermittent.
What phase is continuous reinforcement ideal for?
The acquisition phase.
What are the four schedules of intermittent or partial reinforcement?
Fixed interval
variable interval
Fixed ratio
variable ratio
What does "fixed interval" schedule of reinforcement refer to?
Fixed interval is a schedule of reinforcement when reinforcement occurs the first time the target beh is emitted after the fixed time interval has elapsed. (i.e. child taken to ice cream after completing hmwk unassisted provided at least a week has gone by).
On a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement, the response rate is usually ___
1. low
2. high
during most of the interval and _______________
1. increases slightly
2. decreases slightly
at the end of the interval.
1. low
1. increases slightly
What does "variable interval" schedule of reinforcement refer to?
Reinforcement occurs the first time the targe beh is emitted after a variable, unpredictable interval of time has occured.
In variable interval schedules of reinforcement, the Ss ________
1. can,
2. can't
anticipate when the reinforcement might occur, and performs at a ________ rate.
1. fast,
2. moderate,
3. slow
2. can't
2. moderate
In intermittent schedules, the term "interval" refers to what?
1. time
2. behavior/responses
1. time
In intermittent schedules of reinforcement, the term "ratio" refers to what?
1. time
2. behavior/responses
2. behavior/responses
In the fixed ratio schedule, when does the reinforcement occur?
After an unchanging number of responses are emitted (i.e. after 50 envelopes are stuffed).
In the fixed ratio schedule, the response rate is:
1. typically low to moderate
2. typically moderate
3. typically moderate to high
3. moderate to high
In the variable ratio schedule, when does reinforcement occur?
After an unpredictable number of reponses are emitted (slot machine)
In a variable ratio schedule, the Ss performs the behavior at a
1. low rate
2. moderate rate
3. high rate
3. high rate and with little pause.
Please list the following from greatest operant strength to lowest during the acquisition phase:
1. fixed interval
2. fixed ratio
3. variable interval
4. variable ratio
4. variable ratio;
2. fixed ratio;
3. variable interval;
1. fixed interval
(ratio schedule better than interval schedule)
Please list the following from greatest to lowest resistance to extinction:
1. fixed interval
2. fixed ratio
3. variable interval
4. variable ratio
4. variable ratio;
2. fixed ratio;
3. variable interval;
1. fixed interval
Which schedule (fixed or variable) results in more pauses after after reinforcement?
Fixed schedules
When graphed, which schedule results in a scalloped shape and which schedule results in a smoother shape?
1. fixed
2. variable
Scalloped: fixed
smooth: variable
Which schedule of reinforcement has the most scalloped shaped graph?
1. Fixed interval
2. Fixed ratio
Fixed interval
When does operant extinction occur?
When the beh is no longer reinforced.
In operant conditioning, what is a response burst?
When a behavior is no longer being reinforced, the withholding of reinforcement may result in an increase in the behavior.
Superstitious behavior is operantly or classically learned?
Operantly
(Superstitious behavior occurs from accidental or non-contingent reinforcement that is not linked to the emission of the target behavior).
In operant conditioning, what does discrimination learning or stimulus control refer to?
Target beh are reinforced in certain situations, but not in others. The Ss learns to discriminate b/w these two situations (i.e whining works with mom but not dad).
In stimulus control (operant conditioning), the stimulus that signals reinforcement will take place is called:
1. discriminative stimulus (S with superscript D)
2. S delta (S with supercript triangle)
Discriminative stimulus (S with superscript D)
In discrimination learning, the stimulus that signals reinforcement will not occur is:
1. discriminative stimulus (S with superscript D)
2. S delta (S with supercript triangle)
S Delta (S with superscript triangle)

(Delta sounds like delete)
In operant conditioning, stimulus generalization refers to what?
When a Ss begins to emit the target behavior in the presence of a similar but not exactly the discriminative stimulus.
When a child who gets attention by whining from his g-mother whines in the presence of other elderly women, what is this called?1. stimulus generalization
2. response generalization
Stimulus generalization (operant conditioning)
In operant conditioning, response generalization refers to what?
When the Ss performs a beh that is similiar but not identical to the one previously reinforced, hoping to be reinforced.
When a dog does a similar trick to one previously reinforced in hopes of getting a treat, this is an example of:

1. stimulus generalization
2. response generalization
2. Response generalization (operant conditioning)
The gradual reduction in prompting is called:
Fading
Is shaping a classical or operant conditioning tool?
Operant conditioning
True or false, shaping can be used to teach both simple and complex behaviors.
True.
What is this an example of in operant conditioning?

Finding a movie, driving to the theatre, finding a parking spot, buying a ticket and then watching the movie?
Chaining (each beh is minorly reinforced until the last beh, which receives a major reinforcement).
What is this an example of?

"if you eat your spinach, you can go out and play"
The Premack Principle(or Grandma's Rule)
True or False: In the Premack Principle, a high frequency behavior is paired with a low freq beh.
True
If two behaviors have been reinforced previous, but now only one is being reinforced (i.e cleaning but not raking), which behavior will increase and which will decrease? What is this called?
The beh currently being reinforced will increase while the other beh will decrease. This is called Behavioral contrast.
Bandura, Ross and Ross (1963) found what result in the Bobo doll study?
That chilren exposed to violent models tended to imitate the exact violent beh they observed.
True or false: Bandura beleived that we perform beh because we have been reinforced in the past.
False. Bandura believed that we perform beh because we anticipate reinforcement in the future (a cognitive activity).
What does reciprocal determinism refer to in social learning theory?
That the interactive triad of the person, his beh and the environment reguate the ind. beh.
What are the four steps Bandura posited for observational learning?
1. attention
2. retention
3. production - reproducing memory during imitation
4. motivation