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280 Cards in this Set

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Process by which substances in gaseous, liquid or solid form dissolve or mix with other substances.
Loss of water by infiltration from a canal, reservoir or other body of water or from a field during the process of initial filling.
Absorption loss
Geological formation of storing and yielding significant quantities of water. It is usually composed of sand, gravel, or permeable rock which lies upon a layer of clay or other impermeable material.
Recharge at a rate greater than natural, resulting from deliberate or incidental human activities.
Aquifer recharge
That part of the stream discharge that is not attributable to direct runoff from precipitation or melting snow; it is usually sustained by ground-water discharge.
Base flow
The movement of water in the interstices of a porous medium to to capillary forces.
Capillary action
An undesirable substance not normally present or an unusually high concentration of a naturally occurring substance in water or soil.
The process whereby heat is carried along with the flowing ground water.
An empirical law which states that the velocity of flow through porous medium is directly proportional to the hydraulic gradient assuming that the flow is laminar and inertia can be neglected.
Darcy's Law
An area in which ground water is discharged to the land surface, surface water, or atmosphere.
Discharge area
Process by which ionic or molecular constituents move under the influence of their kinetic activity in the direction of their concentration gradient.
A well installed to drain surface water, storm water, or treated waste water into underground strata.
Drainage well
The vertical distance the water elevation is lowered or the reduction of the pressure head due to the removal of water.
The removal and suspension of soil into runoff from its normal position by faster water velocity.
The combined water loss from a given area by evaporation from the land and transpiration from plants.
Water that contains less than 1,000 mg per liter of dissolved solids; generally more than 500mg/L is undesirable for drinking and many industrial uses.
Fresh water
A stream or reach of a stream whose flow is being increased by inflow of ground water.
Gaining stream
Subsurface water that fills available openings in rock or soil materials to the extent that they are considered saturated.
Ground water
The process of addition to the saturated zone or the volume of water added by this process.
Ground water recharge
A characteristic of some geologic material that limits its ability to transmit significant quantities of water under the head differences ordinarily found in the subsurface.
A liquid that has percolated through soil, rock or waste and has extracted dissolved or suspended materials.
The removal of materials in solution from soil, rock, or waste.
A stream or reach of a stream in which water flows from the stream bed into the ground.
Losing stream
A device for measuring percolation and leaching losses from a column of soil under controlled conditions.
The solid framework of a porous system.
Said of two or more liquids that are mutually soluable
Source originating over broad areas, such as areas of fertilizer and pesticide application and leaking sewer systems, rather than from discrete points.
Nonpoint source
The movement of particulates in subsurface water.
Particulate transport
Ground water separated from an underlying body of ground water by an unsaturated zone.
Perched ground water
The downward movement of water through the unsaturated zone.
The property of a porous medium to transmit fluids under a hydraulic gradient.
Any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, conduit, well, from which pollutants are or may be discharged,
Point source
The total space not occupied by solid soil or rock particles.
Pore space
The pressure exerted by the weight of water at any given point in a body of water at rest.
Hydrostatic pressure
That part of the earth's crust beneath the regional water table in which all voids, large and small, are filled with water under pressure greater than atmospheric
Saturated zone
To move slowly through small openings of a porous material.
A homogeneous mixture of two or more components.
A device used to measure the moisture tension in the unsaturated zone.
An aquifer which has a water table.
Unconfined aquifer
The movement of water in a porous medium in which the pore spaces are not filled to capacity with water.
Unsaturated flow
The zone between the land surface and the water table.
Unsaturated zone
Process by which saline water underlying fresh water in an aquifer rises upward into the fresh water zone as a result of pumping water from the fresh water zone.
Upper surface of a zone of saturation, where the body of ground water is not confined by an overlying impermeable zone.
Water table
A bored, drilled or driven shaft, or a dug hole, whose depth is greater than the largest surface dimension.
Global process of the earth's water movement, energy supplied by the sun and earth's gravity.
Hydrologic cycle
Flood Protection:
Major flooding mitigators: what do they accommodate and what are they?
25, 50, 100 year storm events. They are major systems that may or may not be designed. Are used when minor flood system is over capacity.
Minor flooding mitigators: what do they accommodate and what are they?
2, 5, 10 year storm events. They are storm sewers, roadside or backyard swales
In the USA, which government organization requires flood insurance studies of any areas that are part of a major system? They also designate flood hazard areas and these are for review at county and municipal offices.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
A regulatory effort made to mitigate pollution to inland surface waters from non-point source pollution.
Clean Water Act (2006) by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Which government agency model aids in selection of storage and treatment facilities to abate pollution and reduce the quantity of urban stormwater runoff and land surface erosion? What are the 7 parameters they employ?
US Army Corps of Engineers Stormwater Management Model (STORM)
- precipitation
- pollution accumulation
- erosion
- runoff quantity and quality
- treatment
- storage
- overflows
Which government agency is an open source, comprehensive model for continuous and single-event simulation of runoff quantity and quality? What can it model?
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Stormwater Management Model (SWMM)
- dynamic storms
- snowmelt
- pollution build up
- wash-off and transport
- infiltration ad inflow
- dynamic routing
- storage ponds, etc.
Buffers adjacent to stream systems and coastal areas provide numerous environmental protection and resource management benefits which can include:
- restoring and maintaining chemical, physical and biological integrity of the water resources
- removing pollutants delivered in urban stormwater
- reducing erosion and controlling sedimentation
- stabilizing stream banks
- maintaining base flow of streams
- providing infiltration of stormwater runoff
- contributing organic matter
- providing a tree canopy to shade streams and promote desirable aquatic organisms
- providing riparian wildlife habitat
- recreation opportunites
Comprehensive strategies that establish broad water management goals and targets for an entire catchment.
Watershed Management Plans
Set out the objectives and policies at which municipalities use to guide development.
Official Plans
Address the requirements for stormwater management on a sub-basin level.
Sub-watershed Plans
Voluntary agreements that allow an individual to set aside private property to limit the type or amount of development on their property.
Conservation easement
Initial stages of design. Determines purpose and objective of proposed construction, and primary activities for which the project is being constructed.
Produces a list of solutions, alternatives, feasibility studies and cost estimates.
Preliminary programming
First plans of a facility Shows interrelationship between spaces and activities.
Schematic plans
Provide a graphic view of the project, the refined details of how the project will look, and the relationship of all the spaces.
Preliminary plans
(followed by preparation of contract bid documents and working drawings)
Survey made for the purpose of supplying a title company and lender with survey and location data necessary for issuing of title and/or mortgage insurance.
Title Insurance Coverage Survey
(determines prop lines, locations of improvements, identifying all easements, utilities and other conditions affecting the property)
Survey conducted to locate and/or investigate surface/subsurface archaeological ruins.
Archaeological Survey
Survey which establishes the true property corners and property lines of a parcel of land. Typically performed to obtain building permits, to resolve property disputes and to locate easement lines.
Boundary Survey
Original survey, resurvey, or retracement of public lands within the Public Land Survey System of the United States for restoration of property lines.
Cadastral Survey
Survey measurements made prior to or while construction is in progress to control elevation, horizontal position, dimensions, and configuration for buildings, fences, roads, etc. Surveyor sets stakes for the proper location, elevation and relative placement of most types of infrastructure improvements. Expressed in Eastings and Northings.
Construction Survey
Survey which provides precise locations of horizontal and vertical positions of points for use in boundary determination, mapping for aerial photographs, construction staking, or other needs.
Control Survey
Survey which determines the elevation of various sections of a building or land. Typically used to aid in building plans to determine if a property is in a flood zone.
Elevation or Floodplain Survey
Survey which takes into account the curvature of the earth and astronomic observations. Uses a coordinate system for locating points on the earth. Used on large scale planning projects.
Geodetic Survey
A system of numerous earth-orbiting satellites that can be used to determine the location (lat, long, and elevation), of a receiver or station on the earth within about 2m.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
A survey of landed property establishing or re-establishing lengths and directions of boundary lines.
Land Survey
Minor adjustment of a boundary line in order to transfer land between adjacent property owners.
Lot Line Adjustment
Survey needed for the division of an existing parcel of land into two or more parcels. Includes a plat of the new parcels and a legal description to record the split.
Lot Split Survey
A survey that combines boundary and topographic surveys for preparation of a site plan to be used for designing improvements or developments, and obtaining government building permits.
Lot Survey (Site Plan Survey, Plot Plan Survey)
A time-honored land surveying method of describing land in terms of shape and boundary dimensions. Used on small to medium landscape architecture projects.
Metes and bounds
A survey in which the curvature of the earth is usually neglected. The computations of relative positions of stations being made by plane geometry and plane trigonometry. Used to develop cadastral maps.
Plane Survey
Survey which obtains measurements for quantities, usually in conjunction with a construction process, earthwork, etc.
Quantity Survey
Survey performed to physically locate structures and improvements on a parcel of land, generally for mortgage purposes. Does not always include boundary monumentation.
Record or As-Built Survey
A survey of "registered" (Torrens-title) land, usually done to shorten lengthy legal descriptions, or divide larger parcels of "Torrens-title" land into smaller tracts.
Registered Land Survey (R.L.S.)
Reconnaissance, preliminary survey and location survey for an alignment or linear type feature such as a road, railroad, canal, pipeline.
Route Survey
Subdivision of a tract of land into smaller parcels, showing monumentation and mathematical survey data on a map, conforming to local government ordinances.
Subdivision Survey (Subdivision Plat)
Survey which locates natural and man made features such as buildings, improvements, fences, elevations, land contours, trees, streams, etc. May be required by a government agency or used by engineers and/or architects for the design of improvement or developments on a site.
Topographic Survey
UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) map types w/ corresponding scales (3).
- 7.5 minute quadrangle maps (1:24,000 + 1:25,000)
- 15 minute quadrangle maps (1:50,000 + 1:62,500)
- Standard edition (1:63.360)
Intervals of a UTM grid.
Spacing (in real scale) of Tick Marks on a UTM map.
1 km
Located at the bottom of the Topography Map, showing the different angles between True North and Magnetic North.
Declination Chart
Directional line between any position on earth, to the True North Pole (usually symbolized by an arrow with a star on a map).
True North
Direction to the Magnetic North Pole (actually the southern pole of the earth's central magnet, as is shown by the north seeking needle of a compass - usually symbolized by half an arrowhead on a map).
Magnetic North
North that was established by the vertical grid lines during the map making process (usually symbolized by the letters GN or Y).
Grid North
Indicated by closely spaced contour lines.
Indicated by circular contour with lines radiating to the center.
Less closely spaced contours.
Gentle slope
Contour lines form a V-shaped pointing down hill.
Closely spaced contours.
Steep slopes.
Contour lines form circles.
Summit (high points)
Contours lines form a V-shape pointing up the hill, these V's are always an indication of a drainage path which could also be a stream or river.
North/South or East/West bearings to the highest spots in an area but not necessarily true longitude of latitude lines. Ex: mountain peaks, city capitol bldgs.
Base lines (BL)
What is a Bench Mark (BM)?
A permanent fixture. Is a small 6x6 inch concrete pillar with a brass USGS disk marker called a tablet. They are physically places in the ground, usually at mountain summits, but also in the flat areas around a city and contain the exact elevation above sea level, and the latitude and longitude of the marker. They can be vertical and/or horizontal controls and used to determine the exact placement of buildings, bridges and other designs.
Usually appear only on maps along roads, near sea level, and in deserts where the contour lines are naturally widely spaced. How are they marked?
Horizontal controls
- Marked on the map with a 'Triangle with elevation' or 'BM Triangle with elevation'
Area measurements which are public records used to record the value, extent, and ownership of land, as a basis for taxation.
Public Land Survey (USPLS)
Shown on topo maps as very light red lines and numbers (3).
- Quadrangle markings
- Cadastral Coordinates
- Legal Descriptions
Vertical row of townships, numbered East and West from a BL (Base line).
Equals 1 square mile (or 640 acres).
Section of Land
Squares in groups of 36 blocks which are repeated over and over again across the face of the map.
- each area of 6x6 'Sections of Land' is equal to 36 square miles.
- numbered 1-36 beginning in the top right corner
Show the height above average sea level. Can be found anywhere, in walls, gate posts, sides of buildings/trees...
Vertical controls
1 Acre in square feet.
1 Acre = 43,560 Square feet = 160 square rods
Creates tax roll annually by identifying, locating, and valuing all property subject to ad valorem taxes in a County.
Assessor's office
The rotation angle of the telescope around a vertical axis, measured (counterclockwise from above) from due north.
Azimuth angle
The angle the telescope i lifted above the horizontal plane.
Elevation angle
Process by which the surveyor checks for accuracy during the process of leveling once the equipment is set up and ready (ex: manhole cover).
Unit of length equal to 66' which is used especially in the U.S. public land surveys.
Chain/Chaining (surveying tapes) 10 square chains equal 1 acre
Process the surveyor uses to determine a new point and elevation when looking through the instrument.
The surveying process of determining the difference in elevation between two or more points by measuring the vertical distance between two points. Typically used to determine the topography of a site.
A 'line' on the earth's surface which follows the shortest distance from pole to pole.
5,280 feet = 1760 yards = 80 chains
1 mile
A recorded map representing a piece of land subdivided into lots and blocks. Upon recording, and if complete, may transfer title to roads, streets, alleys, etc.
A map of land ownership parcels for an area.
Plat map
The origination and destination of a Metes +Bounds legal description
Point of Beginning
Longitudinal starting line from which range is measured to the East and West.
Principle Meridian
A map with a roughly rectangular extent, defined by the four angles of its corners, which are often regularly spaced on a latitude and longitude. Often simply refers to a 7.5 min map.
Quadrangle map
A 160 acre block of land.
Quarter section
A graduated staff used in determining the difference in elevation between two points.
The physical features of a tract of land.
The relief, elevation or shape of the earth in a given area.
A series of consecutive line segments whose lengths and direction are determine by field measurements.
The removal or elimination of a problem, nuisance, or other disturbance especially of public health or safety significance.
A street that generally has two or more lanes, traffic signals, may be designated a truck or bus route, and is intended to serve traffic moving through an area.
Arterial street
Principal street within the network for the provision of both intercity and intracity traffic movement
Major arterial
Secondary street within the network for the purpose of traffic movement between the neighbourhoods and other area within the city.
Minor arterial
Areas determined by local government and state and regional agencies which allow for the adoption of land development regulations, density requirements, and special permitting requirements by these entities.
Area of state critical concern
EPA has delegated authority for implementing the Areas of Concern program to the states, including developing...... (3) points
- Remedial Action Plans
- Coordinating w/ local public advisory councils
- Implementing cleanup activities
Local regulations that control design, construction, and materials used in construction. Based on health and safety standards.
Building codes
An authorization issued by a government agency allowing construction of a project according to approved plans and specs.
Building (construction) permit
The bulk and concentration of physical development of uses permitted in a district. What are (5) examples of this?
Building Intensity Standards
- Lot Coverage (LC)
- Floor Area Ratio (FAR)
- Open Space Ratio (OSR)
- Height, Landscape Volume Ratio (LVR)
- Building Volume Ratio (BVR)
Area of land which is set aside to provide transition between different land uses and to eliminate or reduce the adverse environmental impact, and incompatible land use impacts. Serves as a protective barrier.
Any structure or component erected as a permanent improvement to real property that adds to its value and useful life.
Capital Improvement
Long range multi-year plan of capital improvement projects that are used i the development of annual operating and capital budgets, strategic plans, and long range financial plans. Means to evaluate facility and infrastructure projects. Provides expansion services such as street, sewer, and water...etc.
Capital Improvements Program (CIP)
A series of narrowings or curb extensions, used at midblock locations only, that alternate from one side of the street to the other, forming S-shaped curves; a traffic calming technique
A pattern of development in which industrial and commercial facilities, and homes are grouped together on parcels of land in order to leave parts of the land undeveloped.
Cluster Development
Streets that connect residential and local streets and neihbourhoods connector streets through or adjacent to more than one neighbourhood and have continuity between arterial streets.
Collector street
An official statement of a governing body which sets forth major policies concerning the desired future land use and physical development of an area. Describes long term direction and vision for growth development. What do topic areas typically include? (8)
Comprehensive/Master plan
- land use
- economic development
- community character
- natural resources
- parks and rec
- transportation
- housing
- historic preservation
A written agreement between two or more parties in which a party or parties pledge to perform or not perform specified acts with regard to property; usually found in such real estate documents as deeds, mortgages, leases and contracts for deeds.
An agreement included in a deed to real property that the buyer (grantee) will be limited as to the future use of the property (ex. fence building).
Restrictive covenant
A written instrument used to transfer title to property, such as a deed.
Legal document that conveys title to real property to a 3rd party.The 3rd party holds title until the owner has repaid the debt in full.
Deed of trust
Transfers to the grantee any and all of the legal rights the grantor has in the parcel of real property. Ex. misspelled name on earlier transfer of the property.
Quit Claim Deed
Statistical study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics as well as how populations change over time due to births, deaths,etc.
Public document used by a government agency to analyze the significant environmental effects of a proposed project, to identify alternatives and to disclose possible ways to reduce or avoid environmental damage.
Environmental Impact Report (EIR)
A legal right or permission, giving a person or entity limited use of another's property.
The boundary of a property which abuts an existing or dedicated public right-pf-way, water body or similar barrier.
A corridor composed of natural vegetation w/ specific measure designed to mitigate fire, flood and erosion hazard, land use planning, and development.
Current law requires that Sixteenth Section Lands be classified into one of nine land classifications. These are:
- Forest
- Agri.
- Ind.
- Commercial
- Residential
- Farm Residential
- Recreational
- Catfish Farming
- Other
A set of decisions about how the land will be used and ways to achieve the desired use. It includes (4) points.
Land-use plan
- Definition of goals
- An ordering of land and human and material resources
- An explicit statement of the methods, organization, responsibilities, and schedule to be used
- Agreed targets
A general term for the vertical view corridor that might normally be 3 degrees measure up or down from the height of the viewer's eyes.
Line of sight
Provides access to residences and businesses within neighbourhood.
Local/residential street
Development that is created in response to patterns of separate uses that is typical in suburban areas necessitating reliance on cars.
Mixed use development
A planning option of leaving the situation as it already exists. Existing facilities and services are maintained, and existing transportation policies are continued. Includes any area of land or water essentially unimproved that is designed or reserved for the purposes similar to: (9) points
No action/No build policy
-Open Space
- Preservation of natural resources
- Managed production of resources
- Outdoor rec
- Protection of public health and safety
- Farming
- Protection of scenic views and features
- Environmental protection
- Visual beauty
-Educational opportunities
The proportion of a site that is required to remains as open space.
Open Space Ratio (OSR)
Formal legislative enactment by the government body of a governing body. Must not be in conflict with any higher form of law to have the full force and effect of law within the boundaries to which it applies.
Typical ordinance regulations: (7) points
- Prevent sediment damage to the storm drain system
- Control storm water discharges to minimize downstream erosion
- Minimize soil exposure
- Establish permanent vegetation
- Stabilize waterways and outlets
- Protect storm water inlets
- Install/maintain ESC facilities and practices
A project or subdivision that consists of common property and improvements that are owned and maintained by an owner's association for the benefit and use of the individual units within the project.
Planned Unit Development (PUD/Cluster Housing)
The right of the government to enforce laws for public welfare, including such things as building codes, zoning, etc.
Police powers
Determines how an area is being used and developed and how such use may project into future uses.
Regional land use
Publicly owned space for current or future facilities such as highways, streets, or trails, and above and below-ground utilities.
ROW - Right of Way
Dedicated to public use on a subdivision plat. Must be constructed under permit issued by the governing body and comply with the provisions of these regulations during construction in order to be accepted for maintenance.
New Roadway RIght of Way
Area of real property in which the governing body has a dedicated or acquired right-of-way interest in the real property.Alleys, parkways, blvrds, etc.
Public Right of Way
Minimum horizontal distance required between any lot line or right-of-way and the nearest point of a building, structure or improvement located or to be located on the lot.
Procedures, requirements, and provisions governing the subdivision of land that is specifies in formal rules and regulations.
Subdivision rules and regulations.
Allows property owners to sell the development rights to their property while retaining ownership of the land itself. Often used to preserve open space located within a large site proposed for residential development.
Transfer of development rights
Means a modification or waiving of the provisions of code as applied to a specific property.
Legislative process that classes land in a community into different areas and districts. Regulates building dimensions, density, design, placement.
Federal agency (U.S.) that includes the National Park Service or the Bureau of Land Management. This agency employs more LA's than any other.
Department of the Interior
Federal (U.S.) regulatory agency responsible for administering and enforcing federal environmental laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, and others.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Provides quality, responsive engineering services to the nation including planning, designing, building and operating water resources and other civil works projects (Navigation, Flood Control, Environmental Protection, Disaster Response).
Army Corps of Engineers
Agency responsible for administering the National Flood Insurance Program.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
Provides for wildlife conservation. Allows for survey and investigations of wildlife to be conducted in the public domain.
Fish and Wildlife Service
Primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution. Makes it illegal to discharge any toxic or non-toxic pollution without a permit.
Federal Water Pollution Act of 1972 (FWPCA) (Clean Water Act)
A 1977 amendment to the Federal Water Pollution Act. Emphasizes the control of toxic pollutants. Established a program to transfer the responsibility of Federal clean water programs to the individual states.
Clean Water Act
Permitting system of the Clean Water Act that controls water pollution by regulating point, and nonpoint sources that discharge pollutants into the waters of the U.S.
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
Governs how animal and plant species whose populations are dangerously in decline or close to extinction will be protected and recovered.
Endangered species Act
Enacted to ensure the integration of natural and social sciences and environmental design in planning and decision making for federal projects or projects on federal lands.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
Regulates the treatment of water for human consumption. Requires testing for and elimination of contaminants for the protection of human health.
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
Authorizes states and local agencies to carry out works of improvement for soil conservation and for other purposes including flood prevention; conservation, development, utilization and disposal of water; and conservation and proper utilization of land.
Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act (Pl 83-566)
Amendment to the federal Safe Drinking Water Act in 1986. Minimizes the potential for contamination of public ground water supplies.
Wellhead Protection Program
State, regional or local?

Adopts laws that establish policy and regulatory frameworks for the governmental guidance of development and conservation
State, regional or local?

Subject to state rules for special district (like local water district)
State, regional or local?

Control own planning and decision making.
State, regional or local?

Required to plan and coordinate local plans.
State, regional or local?

May apply sanctions.
State, regional or local?

Allow for transfer of development rights.
State, regional or local?

Include police power to enforce land use plans and zoning.
State, regional or local?

Authorize local to control the location and nature of development (generally).
Divides a city into areas according to use.
Used to control growth and population densities.
Zoning map
Used to show structures, topography, water and roadways.
Quandrangle map
Used to locate buildings and land in order to determine their value
Assessor's map
Used to show how a city may be developed over a long period of time.
Allows for an area to be rezoned.
City master plan map
Site selection as it pertains to SLOPE
- Provide the best views and offer advantages in water and air drainage.
- Steep slopes (over 8%) require excessive digging and may be difficult to get around on during building.
Site selection as it pertains to ASPECT
- Direction a sloped site faces affects ground temp.
- South-facing slopes tend to collect more heat in the winter, which contributes to energy savings.
Site selection as it pertains to DRAINAGE
- Avoid marshy areas, flood plains, and depressions
- Stay away from seasonal creeks and gullies where surface water may flow only during part of the year
- Determine where the water would flow
- Put the building on a slope so that you can create artificial drainage if site has poorly drained clay soil and a rainy climate.
Site selection as it pertains to SUBSURFACE GEOLOGY
- How far to bedrock
- How much topsoil is there
- What kinds of amendments the soil needs for building with
- Whether the site is seismically stable
Site selection as it pertains to MICROCLIMATE
- Solar Access (unobstructed view from southeast to southwest provide best sites for passive solar heating)
- Shade (tall trees on southwest and west of site)
- Prevailing wind direction (regional norms)
- Air Drainage (air cools off and condenses wherever it is expose to the sky, flowing downhill. If air is blocked by a rise in grade, etc air stays trapped here and forms frost. Ensure buildings are positioned so air can drain away and where early morning winter sun will warm them up sooner.
Building Placement Characteristics (5 points)
- Minimize storm water runoff
- Minimize habitat disturbance
- Protect open space
- Reduce the risk of erosion
- Save energy by providing for passive solar, natural ventilation, and daylighting
Subdivision Plat (5 aspects portrayed)
- Safe street intersections
- Sewer lines
- Storm water detention or retention facilities
- Traffic calming methods are used to move traffice through residential hoods.
- Sites dedicated or reserved for parks, or for other public facilities such as schools
Allows units to be clustered on a usable part of a site to avoid unbuildable sensitive portions of the site, like wetlands, streams, and their buffers.
Cluster housing
Grouping of small, single family dwelling units clustered around a common area and developed with a coherent plan for the entire site.
Cottage housing
Small-scale map showing the general location of the project with respect to nearby features such as water bodies, structures, roads, and utilities.
Site Location Map
Records existing topo contours, drainage, general vegetative cover types, streams, ponds, wetlands, riparian buffers, utilities, and accurate property lines, etc.
Site Topographic Map
Soil Types:
loam and sandy loam textures.
Loamy soils
Soil Types:
clay, clay loam, silty clay loam, or sandy clay loam
Clayey soils
Soil Types:
silt and silt loam texture
Silty soils
4 factors of erodabilities:
- soil texture
- organic matter content
- soil structure
- permeability (rate of water moving through the soil)
4 potential causes of erosion:
- nearby waterways or bodies of water
- highly or moderately erodable soils
- slopes with hih or medium erosion potential
- absence of well-vegetates areas
- duration of exposure
- slopes (over 16% i high = erosion potential)
4 classifications of vegetation:
- softwood (evergreen)
- mixed softwood and hardwood
- hardwood
- old field, pasture, etc.
Soil is made up of these 3 things:
Solids, liquids, and gases.
Properties of cohesive soils:
- Includes clay (ranges from .00004" - .002") which is used in embankment fills and retaining pond beds.
- Includes silt (ranges from .0002" - .003")
- Plastic when wet
- Can be molded, but become very hard when dry.
- Usually require a force such as impact or pressure
Properties of granular soils:
- Range in particle size (.003" - .08" sand to .08" - 1.0" fine to medium gravel)
- Known for their water-draining properties
- Obtain max density in either a fully dry or saturated site
Properties of organic soil:
Not suitable for compaction
In referring to the soil's response to stress, define the following:

Hard; little affected by moisture
In referring to the soil's response to stress, define the following:

When moist, crushes under moderate pressure between thumb and forefinger, but resistance is distinctly noticeable
In referring to the soil's response to stress, define the following:

When moist, crushes easily under gentle pressure between thumb and forefinger and can be pressed together in to a lump
In referring to the soil's response to stress, define the following:

When dry, moderately resistant to pressure; can be broken with difficulty between thumb and forefinger
In referring to the soil's response to stress, define the following:

Noncoherent when dry or moist, does not hold together in a mass
In referring to the soil's response to stress, define the following:

When wet, readily deformed by moderate pressure but can be pressed into a lump; will form a "wire" when rolled between thumb and forefinger
In referring to the soil's response to stress, define the following:

When wet, adheres to other material and tends to stretch somewhat and pull apart rather than to pull free from other material
In referring to the soil's response to stress, define the following:

When dry, breaks into powder or single grains under very slight pressure
Hydrolic Soil Groups:
- sand, loamy sand or sandy loam types of soils
- low runoff potential and high infiltration rates even when thoroughly wetted
Group A
Hydrolic Soil Groups:
- silt loam or loam
- moderate infiltration rate when thoroughly wetted
Group B
Hydrolic Soil Groups:
- sandy clay loam
- low infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted
Group C
Hydrolic Soil Groups:
- clay loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay or clay
- highest runoff potential
Group D
The ability of organisms or tissues to function only with the presence of free oxygen.
A general term for the sediments laid down in river beds, floodplains, lakes, fans at the foot of the mountain slopes and estuaries during relatively recent geologic times.
Soil that is devoid of interstitial oxygen. In wetlands this condition most normally occurs because of the sustained presence of water, which limits contact with the atmosphere.
Anaerobic soil
The angle between the horizontal and the maximum slope that a soil assumes through natural processes.
Angle of repose
A measure of the load per unit area that a material can withstand before failure.
Bearing capacity
- important to consider when determining footing size of buildings
Resistance to a crushing or buckling force, the max compressive load a speciment sustains divided by its original cross-sectional area.
Compressive strength
A type of soil with characteristics resulting from prolonged saturation and chemically reducing conditions such as occurs under anaerobic conditions.
Hydric soil
The point at which soil acts like a liquid, typically in earthquake conditions
Mixture of 2 or more soils.
Having properties determined predominantly by mineral matter. Usually contains less than 20% organic matter.
Mineral soil
Plant and animal residue in the soil at various stages of decomposition. Source of nitrogen and other nutrients for crops.
Organic matter
Movement of water though a porous substance, as through soils of a spreading basin
The ability of a soil to hold together under pressure from a downhill force
A heavy stone placed around inlets and outlets of pipes or paved channels to provide protection against erosion.
Protects the bank by stabilizing the toe of the slope and by trapping sediment from the sloughing bank.
Fibre roll product
Moisture content in the soil at the threshold between semi-solid and plastic
Plastic limit
Moisture content in the soil at the threshold between plastic and liquid
Liquid limit
Water content, expressed as a percentage of the weight of the oven-dried soil, at which further loss in moisture will not cause decrease in its volume
Shrinkage limit
Benefits of soil compaction: 5 points
- increases load bearing capacity
- prevents soil settlement and frost damage
- provides stability
- reduces water seepage, swelling and contraction
- reduces settling of soil
Type of compaction test:
- determines the max density of a soil needed for a specific job site
- tests the effects of moisture on soil density
expresses value as a percentage of density which is determined before any compaction takes place to develop the compaction specs.
Proctor Test
Type of compaction test:
- requires 4.5x more effort than required by the Standard Compaction method
- required where foundations are to be placed in the soil backfill, and where minimal or no settlement can be tolerated by the structure
- Modified Method (Modified Proctor Test)
Used to know and control the soil density during compaction
Field Test
Type of field compaction test:
- pick up handful of soil, squeeze and open.
- if soil is moldable and breaks into only a couple of pieces when dropped, it has the right amount of moisture for proper compaction
The Hand Test
Type of field compaction test:
- compares density of the soil that was just compacted to the density obtained from the Proctor Test of soil from the same area.
Sand Cone Test
Type of field compaction test:
- uses a radioactive isotope source at the soil surface (backscatter) from a probe placed into the soil (direct transmission)
Nuclear Density
A force that tends to compress the surface of the soil
Compressive stress
The opposite of compressional stress; occurs when one part moves away from another part that does not move
Tensional stress
The response to stress
Point at which a material fails (deformability and firmness of soil). Often plotted as a function of stress by engineers
Yield point
- type of fee that include necessary expenses that occur regularily
- type of expenses that vary due to market factors
Estimate based on major systems or items, such as a water feature
Estimate based on various components of design
Estimate based on detailed items of various components as warranted by the available cost data
- Bond submitted with the bid by the Contractor
- Security to the Owner that the successful bidder will enter into an agreement for the work and not withdraw or nullify its bid after submission.
Bid Bond
Part of an agreement that provides for one party to bear the monetary costs, either directly or by reimbursement, for losses incurred by a second party.
Guarantees the Owner that any defects found after the work has been completed will be corrected by the original Contractor or other agent of the surety company.
Maintenance Bond
Guarantees the Owner that the project will be completed for the contract price in the event the original Contractor fails to perform the work.
Performance Bond
Guarantees the Owner that all labour, equipment, and materials will be completely paid for in the even the original Contractor fails to perform the work.
Payment (or Statutory) Bond
Methods of Billing:
- contractor is reimbursed for direct and indirect costs and, in addition, is paid a fee for its services.
- fee is usually stated as a percentage of cost, but may be a fixed amount. The agreement may or may not include a guaranteed max price or a savings split.
Cost Plus or Cost Plus Fee Agreement
Methods of Billing:
- sets a guaranteed max or ceiling price to the owner for the cost of construction.
Guaranteed maximum upset, billed hourly
Methods of Billing:
- compensation is based upon a percentage of the construction cost
- cost set by an estimate or a bid
Percentage of construction cost
Methods of Billing:
- a method based on a portion of the project cost set using the prime consultant's fee amount in some percentage as the sub consultant's fee
Percentage of prime consultant fee
Methods of Billing:
- a written agreement in which a specific amount is set forth as the total payment for completing the contract
Stipulated Sum Agreement
Methods of Billing:
- Owner agrees to pay the contractor for a specified amount of money for each unit of work successfully completed as set forth in the contract
- includes all extra costs incidental to the item
Unit Price Contract
Methods of Billing:
- establishes a purchase amount for miscellaneous items that cannot be specified during the bid stage
Cash allowance/force account
Methods of Billing:
- payment made to someone for out-of-pocket expenses
Typical items not included in project budget: (5 points)
- design work
- permits
- specialty items such as utility hook ups, lighting fixtures
- loan fees and any special insurance
- contingency amount
A sum of money set aside in the construction contract for items which have not been selected and specified in the construction contract. Best kept to a minimum number and used for items whose choice will not impact earlier stages of construction (ex: tile selection)
Pre-agreed upon schedule of payments to a contractor is usually based upon the amount of work completed
Payment schedule

- may include a deposit prior to start of work
- often scheduled for the beginning of the month to allow the contractor to distribute to the subs and suppliers by the 10th of the month
- may also be a temp 'holdout' at the end of the contract for any small items which have not been completed
Criteria for withholding a payment: (4 points)
- Defective work
- Third part claims
- Evidence that the work:
a. is not verified by payment application information
b. is not completed according to contract docs
c. cannot be completed with the remaining contract sum
d. cannot be completed on time
e. of others is not being paid
- Damage to the owner or another contractor
Criteria for payment: (6 points)
- Must have certification, a written statement of the correctness and reliability of something
- Must be notarized application for payment
- Must be submitted (usually 10 days) before the date of each payment
- Must include value of work done to the date of application
- Must include the value of any unused purchased materials in acceptable storage
- Must be approved, certified and signed by the owner/designer before payment