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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The urinary system consists of what 3 major structures?
kidney, ureter, and urinary bladder
The primary function of the kidney is
ion/water balance, and elimination of urea, blood pH regulation, blood pressure, removal of toxins
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
nephrons
Initial urine forms by filtration in what part of the nephron?
Bowman's capsule
Each Bowman's capsule surrounds a capillary bed call the _____?
glomerulus
The first section of the nephron is what?
proximal tubule
The proximal tubule is involved in reabsorption of what?
Na+ and glucose, and most of the water reabsorbed from the urine
The proximal tubule actively secretes what that is identified by the liver
toxins
The second unit in the nephron is what?
Loop of Henle
The Loop of Henle's function is what?
NaCl/urea concentration gradient is established, some water reabsorption
The third unit in the nephron is what?
distal tubule
The distal tubule's function is what?
ion transport, some water reabsorption, buffers urine
The final region of the nephron is what?
collecting duct
The collecting duct's function is what?
water reabsorption
Final urine contains what?
little water, no glucose or amino acids, abundant urea, toxins, and ions found in excess in the body.
Reabsorption in the collecting duct is enchanced by what heurohormone of the posterior pituitary gland?
vasopressin
The kidney actively regulates blood pressure through the ________ ________ ____________ system.
Renin-Angiotensin_Aldosterone system.
What is Renin?
A hormone secreted by the kidney when pressure drops and filtration is compromised.
What is Angiotensin II?
A hormone that causes arteriolar vasoconstriction to increase BP
What is Aldosterone
A steroid hormone of the adrenal gland that increases Na+ uptake and water retention causing extracellular fluid volume
What is released from the heart that promotes Na excretion and water loss to lower extracellular fluid volume?
Atrial natriuretic peptide
Each kidney has about how many nephrons?
1 million
Define filtration
the process by which water and dissolved particles are pulled from blood
Ammonia and many drugs are removed from the blood during
tubular secretion
The proximal tubule is where most of what is reabsorbed
filtered salts and water
Glomerular filtration rate is what?
a passive process and is determined by a net filtration pressure
What major ion is ACTIVELY reabsorbed by the tubule?
Sodium
What electrolyte is secreted in the distal convoluted tubule?
Potassium
Antibiotics and food additives are removed from the body by what?
base transport system
What must be present for the osmotic movement of water from the collecting duct
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin
What increases the reabsorption of calcium by the renal tubule?
Parathormone
Lab values for urine
specific gravity 1,000-1.045
pH 4.8-7.5
glucose 0
What is the product of broken down hemoglobin causing yellor to be pale yellow?
urochrome
Follow blood from start to end in the kidney
Renal artery, interlobar arteries, arcuate arteries, interlobular arteries, afferent arterioles glomerular capillaries, efferent arterioles vasa recta, veins