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152 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
"little organs"
structures in cells
organelles
portion of cell outside nucleus
cytoplasm
two membranes surrounding the nucleus
nuclear envelope
granular material in nucleus
chromatin
threadlike structures containing the genetic information
chromosomes
small dense region where assembly of ribosomes begins
nucleolus
The _______ contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules.
nucleus
Proteins are assembled on ________.
ribosomes
small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm
ribsomes
an internal membrane system where eukaryotic cells are found
endoplasmic reticulum
The ________ is the site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell.
endoplasmic reticulum
an organelle where proteins produced in the rough ER move into
Golgi apparatus
The function of the _________ is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell.
Golgi apparatus
small organelles filled with enzymes
lysosomes
saclike structures that store materials.
vacuoles
_________ are organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell use.
mitochondria
Plants and some other organisms contain ___________.
chloroplasts
__________ are organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called ___________.
chloroplasts
photosynthesis
________ and ____________ contain their own DNA
chloroplasts and mitochondria
A structure that helps support the cell.
cytoskeleton
The ________ is a network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape. This is also involved in movement.
cytoskeleton
_______ are located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division/
centrioles
What is the cell theory?
1. all living things are composed of cells
2. cells are the basic unit of life
3. new cells come from existing cells
The cells of eukaryotes have a ________; the cells of a _________ do not.
nucleus
prokaryotes
Eukaryotic cells have a variety of specialized structures called _________.
organelles
Cells throughout an organism can perform different tasks through the process of __________.
cell specialization
The levels of organization in a multicellular organism are:
cell, tissue, organ, organ sys, organism
A ________ is a group of similar cells that perform particular functions.
tissues
What are the four main types of animal cells?
1. muscle
2. epithelial
3. nervous
4. connective
Many groups of tissues working together are _________.
organs
A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function is called an ________.
organ system
All cells are surrounded by a thin, flexible barrier known as the ___________.
cell membrane
Many cells also produce a strong supporting layer around the membrane known as the __________.
cell wall
The cell membrane regulates ___________ and also provides ____________.
what enters and leaves the cell
protection and support
The composition of nearly all cell membranes is a double layered sheet called a __________.
lipid bilayer
The main function of the cell wall is to provide ___________.
protection and support for the cell
The ________ of a solution is the mass of solute in a given volume of solution.
concentration
Moving from high to low concentration is called _________.
diffusion
Diffusion moves from ________ to _______.
high to low
When the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a system, the system has reached _______.
equilibrium
Because diffusion depends upon random particle movements, substances diffuse across ________, without requiring the cell to use ________.
cell membrane
energy
__________ is the diffusion of ________ through a selectively permeable membrane.
osmosis
water
When the solutions are the same strength, they are __________.
isotonic
When the solutions are above strength, they are ______.
hypertonic
When the solution is below strength, they are _______.
hypotonic
When proteins help a substance across a membrane to diffuse, __________ takes place.
facilitated diffusion
In rare occasions when material move against diffusion, the process is known as __________, which requires ____________.
active transport
energy
__________ is the process of taking material into the cell by means of in foldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane.
endocytosis
In ____________, extensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a food vacuole.
phagocytosis
Pinched off vacuoles are made through ___________.
pinocytosis
During __________, the membrane of the vacuole fuses with the cell membrane.
exocytosis
Name the 7 differences btw. prokaryotes and eukaryotes (according to prokaryotes).
PROKARYOTES-
1. no nucleues
2. simple
3. only 3 organelles- cell membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes
4. only 1, circular chromosomes
5. usually very small
6. unicellular only
7. only bacteria
In a hypotonic solution, water moves _______ a cell.
into
In a hypertonic solution, water moves _______ a cell.
out of
An isotonic solution has reached ________.
equilibrium
Who invented the microscope?
Leewenhoek
Who invented the cell? What did he name it after?
Hooke
a monastery's tiny cells
What did German botanist Matthias Schledien conclude?
all plants were made of cells
What did German botanist Theodor Schwann conclude?
all animals were made of cells
Who summarized his work with the cell theory?
Virchow
Why are electron microscopes capable of revealing details much smller than those seen through light microscopes?
Because electron wavelenghths are much smaller than those of light.
Do prokaryotes grow and reproduce?
yes
Are prokaryotes large, multicellular organisms?
no
Are prokaryotes more complex than eukaryotes? Which is older?
no
prokaryotes
Do prokaryotes have a cell membrane and cytoplasm?
yes
Are all eukaryotes large, multicellular organisms?
No, some are unicellular
"Before the nucleus," Organsims who cells lack nuclei, an example is bacteria, they are unicellular
prokaryotes
"True nucleus," Organisms whose cells contain nucleus, examples are animals, plants, fungi, and protis
eukaryotes
Name the four eukaryotes.
animals, plants, fungi, and protis
What is an organelle?
little organs within the cells
What is the "circular center" of the cell?
nucleolus
What is the "spaghetti looking" stuff insdie the cell?
chromatin (DNA)
What "layer" encomposes the nucleus?
nuclear membrane
What looks like "free floating pasta"?
centrioles
What looks like "a cut open bean"?
mitochondrion
What looks like "folded without dots"?
Golgi apparatus
What surrounds the entire cell?
cell membrane
What is the outermost covering of a plant cell?
cell wall
What looks like "a bean with coins stacked on top"? In which cell is this found?
chloroplasts
plants
What looks like "a squishy tube" and is filled with water? In which cell is this found?
central vacuole
plant
What do plant cells include that animal cells do not?
chloroplasts and cell wall
What do animal cells include that most plant cells do not?
lysosomes
What is the function of the nucleus?
to store DNA and nucleolus
What important molecules does the nucleus contain?
chromatin and chromosomes
What is the difference between chromatin and chromosomes? How are they alike?
Chromatin is uncoiled chromosomes and chromosomes are tightly bound. They are both containers for DNA.
The granular material within the nucleus is called the ________.
chromatin
What are the two components of chromatin?
DNA bound to protein
What are chromosomes?
threadlike structures carrying DNA
Most nuclei contain a small, dense region known as the _________.
nucleolus
What two things occur in the nucleolus?
1. the assembly of ribosomes begins
2. decisions are made for the cell
What is the nuclear membrane (envelope)?
a protective shell covering the nucleus
What are ribosomes?
the particles of RNA and protein found in the cytoplasm?
What is cellular fluid?
cytoplasm
What do ribosomes make?
proteins
What is the difference between rough ER and smooth ER?
Rough ER synthesizes proteins, smooth ER performs specialized tasks.
What does rough ER have that smooth ER doesn't?
ribosomes
What makes lipids?
rough ER
Where does the Golgi apparatus send things?
outside of the cell
What does "lyso" mean?
to break
Do lysosomes synthesize lipids?
no
Do lysosomes break down organelles that are old?
yes
Do lysosomes produce proteins?
no
Do lysosomes contain enzymes that break down lipids, carbs, and proteins?
yes
What are vacuoles?
saclike structures that store
What is the function of the central vacuole in plants?
to support heavy structures, such as leaves
How does the contractile vacuole in a paramecium help maintain homeostasis?
it pumps excess water out of the cell
What (two organelles) are enclosed by two membranes?
chloroplasts and mitocohondria
Chlroplasts and mitochondria contain their own genetic information in the form of ______________. These two organelles used to be ________.
DNA
prokaryotes
If a cell is like a city, describe the roles of:
1) nucleus 2) nucleolus 3) nuclear envelope 4) mitochondria 5) ER & ribosomes 6) Golgi apparatus 7) lysosomes 8) vacuoles 9) cytoskeleton
1) nucleus- city hall
2) nucleolus- mayor
3) nuclear envelope- security guards
4) mitochondria-power plant
5) ER & ribosomes-factory
6) Golgi apparatus-post office
7) lysosomes- garbage men and police
8) vacuoles-storage warehouse
9) cytoskeleton-roads and bridges
What are the mitochondria?
convert chemical energy stored in food into more useful compounds
What does mitochondria make? How?
ATP, through cellular respiration
Are mitochondria found in plant, animal, or both?
both
What did biologist Margulis think about mitochondria and chloroplasts? Why?
That they formed from prokaryotes because they carry their own DNA.
What is the cytoskeleton?
The structure that helps support the cell.
What are threadlike, solid structures made up of protein called actin that maintain cell shape, help build cilia, and flagella, and form centrioles in cell division?
microfilaments
What are hollow sructures made up of proteins known as tubulin that support the cell, and help cells move.
microtubules
If something is selectively permeable, it is made up of _________ lipids. It has a ________ head and ________ tail.
phospho
phosphate hydrophilic head
fatty acid hydrophobic tail
The phospho lipids make up the lipid _________.
bilayer
What are the two functions of the cell membrane?
regulates what enters and leaves the cell
provides protection and support
The core of nearly all cell membranes is a double layered sheet called an _________.
lipid bilayer
In a cell membrane, proteins form ________ to help material across the membrane and carbohydrates act like _________ cards.
channels
identification
In what organisms are cell walls found?
plants
Does the cell wall lie within the cell membrane?
no
What is the main function of the cell wall?
to provide protection and support
What are cell walls (plants) usually made of?
cellulose
What is the concentration of a substance?
how much of a substance is in the solvent (water)
What is diffusion?
when particles move from an area of high concentration to low concentration
What kind of transport is diffusion? Does diffusion require energy?
passive
no
What is meant when a system reaches equilibrium?
the concentration of the solute is the same throughout
What three things move easily and freely across the cell membrane?
1. water
2. alcohol
3. oxygen
What does it mean that membranes are selectiely permeable?
that some substances can pass across them and others can not
What is osmosis?
the diffusion of water
When will water stop moving across a membrane?
never
If two solutions are isotonic, they are the ___________.
same strength
A solution is above strentgth in solute, it is ___________.
hypertonic
A solution is below strentgth in solute, it is _____________.
hypotonic
On which side of a selectively permeable membrane does osmosis exert a pressure?
on the hypertonic side
What happens during facilatated diffusion?
the protein forms a tunnel to help diffusion
What is the role of protein channels in a membrane?
to allow substances through
Does facilitated diffusion require energy?
yes
The energy requiring transport process that moves material across the cell membrane against a concentration difference is called _________.
active transport
What is endocytosis?
taking material into the cell by means of infolding
What is phagocytosis?
packaging a particle in a food vacoule
What is exocytosis?
the contents are forced out of the cell by means of fusion
During endocytosis, what happens to the pocket in the cell membrane when it breaks loose from the membrane?
it forms a vacuole
A single celled organism is called _________.
unicellular
What is cell specialization? How is it done?
developing differently to perform different tasks
change in shape, composition, or organelles
What are the levels of organization in multicellular organisms?
cells
tissues
organs
organ sys
organism
What is a tissue?
A group of cell working toghether
What are the four main types of tissues in animals?
muscle, epithelial, connective, and nervous
Groups of tissues are called _________.
organs
A group of organs is a _________.
organ sys